Mu koyi “programming” a hausance, a saukake (3)
Monday 26 June 2017     1 Shawwal 1438

Aminiya

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Mu koyi “programming” a hausance, a saukake (3)

Dabarun Gina Manhajar Kwamfuta (Programming Languages)
“Programming Languages” na nufin “Dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta” ne; ko ka ce “Yaren gina manhajar kwamfuta,” a wani kaulin. Su ne nau’ukan dabarun da ake amfani da su wajen rubuta umarnin da ake son bai wa kwamfuta don aiwatar da abin da ake son ta zartar.
Asali da samuwa
Wadannan dabaru dai sun samo asali ne tun samuwar kwamfuta a duniya, sai dai a farkon samuwarsu ba kowa ke iya fahimtar irin umarnin ba, saboda sarkakiyar da ke cikin bayanan, wato: ‘Source Code.’ Ba a fara samun dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta masu saukin fahimta ba sai cikin shekarun 1950s. A wannan babi, yaren gina manhajar kwamfuta ta farko da aka fara kirkira shi ne: FORTRAN (Formula Translator), wanda aka samar a shekarar 1957. A shekarar 1958 kuma aka samar da yaren LISP (List Processor) da kuma ALGOL (Algorithmic Language). Sai kuma yaren COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) a shekarar 1959. Wadannan nau’ukan dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta guda hudu, su ne tubalin dukkan nau’ukan yaren gina mahajar kwamfuta na zamanin yau.
Bayan su an samu yaren BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) a shekarar 1964. Da kuma yaren PASCAL, wanda aka kirkira tsakanin shekarar 1968 da 1970. A shekarar 1969 sai ga yaren C, wanda shi ne yaren farko da aka fara amfani dashi wajen gina babbar manhajar kwamfuta (Operating System).
Wadannan dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta dai suna da yawa. Bayan wadanda na zayyana a sama, wadanda su ne asali, akwai kari, irin su: C++ (C Plus Plus), da C# (C Hash), da C#.Net (C Hash Dot Net), da Ada, da F# (F Hash), da Fled, da Haskell, da Amiga, da Clojure, da JAbA, da PHP, da JabaScript, da J# (J Hash), da Objectibe-C, da SmallTalk, da Swift, da PowerBuilder, da Python, da Ruby, da Cocoa, da J++ (J Plus Plus), da L#.Net (L Hash Dot Net), da F, da B, da ABC da sauransu.
Wadannan kadan ne cikin kadan, na ire-iren dabarun da ake amfani dasu wajen gina manhajar kwamfuta a halin yanzu.

Jaridan Aminiya, Kamfanin Media Trust Limited