Categories: Adabi

Adabin Gargajiya

Tun asali a ƙasar Hausa, akwai hanyoyi da Hausawa ke bi wajen gudanar da rayuwarsu da kuma isar da saƙonni ta kowace fuska kama daga karantarwa da zaburarwa, da nishaɗantarwa da gargaɗi da sauransu. Dukkan waɗannan abubuwa akan yi su ne a gargajiyance da baki. Misali, a kan bi hanyar waƙa wajen zaburar da mutum kamar mafarauta, ’yan dambe da sauransu. Haka akan bi hanyar tatsuniya wajen koya wa yara kyawawan ɗabi’u ta hanyar labaran tatsuniyar.

Saboda haka wannan tsohuwar hanya, ta karantarwa da sauransu da baki ake yin ta, ba a rubuce ba. Don haka  ne masana suka kira ta Adabin Gargajiya.

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Aminiya ta yi waiwaye a kan adabin gargajiya domin  kalato wadansu  bayanai daga masana domin amfanar mai karatu da kuma daliban ilimi. A kan kira wannan rubutu dake tafe Adabin Gargajiya kuma a kan kira shi da Adabin Baka.

Aminiya ta yi wannan waiwaye ne domin dora masu karatu a kan yadda duk lokacin da za su yi karatu su fahimci fagen da suke karantawa.

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Ma’anar Adabin Gargajiya

Farfesa Ɗangambo (1984), ya ce, “Adabin Gargajiya, shi ne Adabin da Hausawa suka gada daga kaka da kakanni”.  Amma Yahaya, Zariya, Gusau, da ’Yar’aduwa (1992), sun kalle shi a matsayin nau’in Adabi da ke ɗauke da zantuttuka gajeru ko dogaye na hikima waɗanda ke koyar da wasu darrusa.

Ke nan, Adabin Baka ko Adabin Gargajiya, Adabi ne da yake wanzuwa ta hanyar magana; da baki ake isar da shi haka nan a taskace shi. Babbar hanyar isar da shi ita ce kunne ya girmi kaka. Idan ana son nazartar rawuyar Bahaushe ta wannan sigar sai a duba abubuwan da ke ƙunshe cikin wannan buhu na Adabin Baka. Yana da rassa ko rabe-rabe.

Rassan Adabin Gargajiya

Adabin Baka yana da ajujuwa ko rassa da dama, Farfesa Ɗangambo (1984), ya karkasa shi a dunƙule kamar haka:

  1. Tatsuniyoyi da Labarai.
  2. Almara da Wasa Kwaƙwalwa.
  3. Ƙissa da Hikaya.
  4. Waƙoƙi da Kaɗe-Kaɗe.

Su kuwa Yahaya, Zariya, Gusau, da ’Yar’aduwa (1992), sai suka karkasa shi kamar haka:

  1. Zube: Ya ƙunshi Tastuniya, Almara, Hikaya, Kissa, Tarihi, Tarihihi, Labari, Barkwanci da sauransu.
  2. Waƙa: Ta ƙunshi waƙoƙin baka, kaɗe-kaɗe, bushe-bushe, tumasanci, roƙon baka da sauransu.
  3. Azancin magana: Ya ƙunshi Karin Magana, Salon Magana, Kacici-Kacici, Zaurance, Karya Harshe/Karangiya, Waskiya, Baƙar Magana, Ba’a, Zambo, Sara, Kirari da sauransu.

Bayan waɗannan rabe-rabe da muka gani daga waɗannan fuskoki guda biyu, haka kuma abubuwan da suka shafi sana’o’i, al’adu, bukukuwa da sauransu, su ma suna cikin wannan aji na Adabin Gargajiya ko Adabin Baka.

Amfanin Adabin Gargajiya

  1. Koyar da tarbiyya: Adabin Baka hanya ce da kaka da kakanni ke amfani da ita wajen koya wa yara tarbiyya cikin hikima ta hanyar magana ko dai kai-tsaye ko kuma cikin labari.
  2. Taskace al’adu: Ta hanyar Adabin Baka Bahaushe yake taskace al’adun gargajiya.
  3. Fito da yanayin zamantakewa: Ta hanyar Adabin Gargajiya Bahaushe yake sanar da jama’a yadda yanayin zamantakewarsa yake.
  4. Koyar da Fasaha da kuma Taskace ta: Ta hanyar Adabin Gargajiya na gaba suke koyar da na baya irin fasahar da Allah Ya hore musu, kamar idan muka duba yanayin zamantakewar Bahaushe za mu ga a cike take da darrusa a kowane lokaci kuma a ko’ina za ka ga yara suna ɗamfare da manya suna koyon abubuwa.
  5. Taskace tarihi da yaɗa shi: Ta hanyar Adabin Gargajiya ne al’ummar Hausa take isar da tarihinta, musamman ta hanyar nan da aka fi sani da kunne ya girmi kaka.
  6. Nishaɗantarwa: Ta hanyar Adabin Gargajiya Bahaushe yake nishadantar da kansa. Waƙoƙi, tatsuniya, kaɗa-kaɗe, barkwanci, wasanni da bukubuwa da sauransu, dukkan waɗannan suna daga cikin hanyoyin da Bahaushe yake bi yana nishaɗantar da kansa ko dai a lokutan bukukuwa ko kuma a lokacin zama haka kawai.

An ciro wani sashi na rubutun nan daga shafin Intanet na searchworks.stanford.edu

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