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Bikin murnar cika shekara 50 da fara zuwa duniyar wata (6)

Cikin jerin bayanan da muke kawowa don murnar cika shekara 50 da fara zuwa duniyar wata, a yau za mu ci gaba ne cikin littafin Dokta Adnan Abdulhamid, inda yake yi mana bayanin gudunmawar Malaman Musulunci cikin wannan fanni na sararin samaniya.  A sha karatu lafiya:

Gudunmawar Malaman Musulunci

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Kur’ani Mai girma ya tabbatar cikin ayoyi masu dimbin yawa cewa, halittar duniya baki daya aya ce da ke nuna samuwar Ubangiji. Bayan haka, ni’ima ce cikin ni’imomin da Ubangiji Ya bai wa bayinSa. Kur’ani ya tabbatar da cewa duniya gaba dayanta, an halicce ta ce da gaskiya, ba don wargi ko wasa ba. Don haka, koyon Ilimin Sararin Samaniya, wanda yana daya daga cikin nau’o’in ilimin kimiyya, ba abu ba ne na wasa; hanya ce ta koyon tarbiyya da imani. In kuwa haka ne, wajibi ne duk mai koyonsa ya kyautata manufa da niyyarsa.

Sai bayan na girma ne na ci karo da littattafan tarihin Musulunci masu dauke da bayanai kan gudunmawar da Malaman Musulunci suka bayar wajen ci gaban fannin Ilimin Sararin Samaniya. Wannan ci gaba kuwa ya samo asali ne ta hanyar Malaman Musulunci da suka yi rayuwa a kasashen Larabawa da kuma wadanda suka rayu a Daular Andalus (Spain) tun cikin karni na takwas Miladiyya, a birnin Kordoba (Townson, 1973:12).  Duk da haka, tarihi ya nuna cewa Ilimin Sararin Samaniya ya samo asali ne daga Jazirar Larabawa.

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Malaman Musulunci masana kimiyya sun kwankwadi ilimin fannin sararin samaniya ne daga zamanin da ya biyo zuwan Musulunci; musamman daga birnin Mesopotamia da Daular Fasha da Indiya da kuma Daular Sin, wadanda suka kware cikin wannan fanni na Ilimin Sararin Samaniya.  Wadannan dauloli da suka yi zamani kafin zuwan Musulunci sun yi amfani ne da Ilimin Taurari da kuma jabun ilimin sararin samaniya.  Har wa yau, Malaman Musulunci sun fara amfani da kayayyakin binciken sararin samaniya na da, wadanda aka gada daga daulolin Indiya da Sin.  Aristatalis ne ya fara yin sharhi kan rubuce-rubucen babban malamin falsafalar nan na Daular Girka – wanda ya yi da’awar cewa dukkan taurari suna tsaye ne daura da wannan duniya, kuma ba su motsawa. Bayan shi kuma sai Fakhr Al-Din al-Razi, wanda ya yi zamani a karni na 13. Al-Razi ya tabbatar da cewa babu dalili cikin wannan zance na Aristatalis da ke cewa taurari ba su motsawa (Al-Faruki, 1986:332).

A yanzu dai ga wasu daga cikin gudunmawar da Malaman Musulunci suka bayar wajen habaka fannin Ilimin Sararin Samaniya a duniya:

Sun tsarkake fannin ilimin taurari, wanda a baya yake cike da miyagun akidun Girkawa. Sannan suka samar wa duniya wata sabuwar mahanga a fannin ilimin lissafi. Su suka kirkiro fannin al-jabru (Algebra), su suka samar da sifili (duk da cewa Indiyawa ne suka kirkiri wannan alama, amma Malaman Musulunci ne suka fara amfani da shi wajen lissafi).

Babban ci gaban da suka samar a fannin Ilimin Sararin Samaniya shi ne ilimin sarrafa haske (Optics Science) wanda Ibn al-Haisam ya bullo da shi a shekarar 1039 Miladiyya. Kuma wannan kokari da ya yi ne ya bayar da damar kirkirar na’urar hangen nesa, wato su suka kirkiri gilashin sarrafa launuka cikin haske, wato Prismatic Glass, wanda a karshe bayan bincike ya ci gaba, aka yi amfani da shi wajen kirkiro na’urar gano bigire da tsarin taurari a sararin samaniya, don ci gaba da bincike a kansu.

Sun kirkiro agogon karfe (Pendulum) don kidayar lokaci, wanda ke nuna lokaci fiye da agogon yashi da Larabawa suka yi amfani da shi a baya. Wannan kokari ne kuma ya zaburar da masana wajen kirkirar agogon zamani da kuma bai wa lokaci wani matsayi na musamman a fannin Ilimin Sararin Samaniya. Bayan haka, Al-Khawarazimi ne ya kirkiri Jadawalin Gano Bigiren Halittun Sasannin Sama, wato Table of Calculating the Positions of Heabenly Bodies.

Cikin shekarar 772 Miladiyya ne Muhammad Ali Ibn Musa al-Astrolabi, tare da wadansu masana, suka kirkiro Na’urar Lissafin Sasannin Kasa da Kusurwoyinta (Latitude and Longitude), tare da gano lissafin tazara da bigiren da rana da wata da taurari suke.

Malaman Musulunci ne suka kirkiri Na’urar Gano Jihohin Duniya, wato Magnetic Compass (Al-Faruki, 1986:330).

Sheihul Islam Ahmad Ibn Taimiyyah ne, kamar yadda Sheikh Ibn Usaimin ya ruwaito daga gare shi, ya tabbatar da cewa husufin wata kan auku ne cikin daren 14 ga wata, khusufin rana kuma kan auku a daren 29 ko 30 cikin watanni, kamar yadda ya rubuta cikin littafinsa.