Categories: Adabi

Binciken tarihin Hausa: Labaran da bishiyoyin kuka ke sanar mana

Kasancewar akwai ilimi a cikin kowanne abu, ya kamata mu yi dubi ga bishiyoyin kuka don fahimtar ilimin da suke sanar mana a nan kasar Hausa Domin kuwa kamar yadda masana kimiyyar duwatsu ke cewa akwai tarihi a kowane dutse, haka ma akwai labari ga mafi yawan rukunonin bishiyoyin kuka a nan kasar Hausa. To amma, wane labari bishiyoyin suke sanar mana?

Ana gane wanzuwar biranen Hausawa daga kukoki

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Hakika, kasancewar tunda jimawa, babu shahararrun gine-gine masu kafuwa cikin kasa a kasar Hausa, muna iya cewa babu wani ma’auni da ke tabbatar mana da wanzuwar tsohuwar rayuwa a kasar Hausa sama da rukunin kukoki.

Ko tantama babu, duk inda aka samu kukoki sun jeru reras, ko sun yi da’ira, ko wani abu mai kama da haka, to akwai labarin cewa gari ya taɓa wanzuwa a wannan wuri.Ana sanin tsufan gari gami da tumbatsarsa daga kukoki.

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A kan haka, mun yi dubi ga tarihin wasu tsofaffin garuruwa a nan kasar Hausa masu cike da bishiyoyin kukoki, kuma ga ɗan abin da muka samo:

Sabon Birni

Daga tsofaffin biranen da ke kasar Hausa, akwai Sabon Birni a kasar Getso mai cike da kukoki. Masana tarihin garin, sun bayyana cewa wadansu Fulani ne suka kafa shi, waɗanda suka taso daga Arewa sama da shekara 500 da suka gabata.

Kasancewar garin Fulani ne irin wannan mai cike da kukoki, ya sa akwai zakuwar sanin dalilan fitowar waɗannan kukoki a garin.

A da, hasashe ya fi tafiya a kan cewa mu’amala da iskokai ke tilasta wa Hausawan dauri rayuwa da kukoki a muhallansu, amma samunsu a matsugunin da tun asali Fulani suka kafa, sai ya zo da wani sabon abu.

A bisa jin dalilin fitowar kukokin, mazauna garin sun ce a can baya babu kukoki a wurin kafin ya zama gari, amma kasancewar Fulanin da suka zauna a wurin suna amfani da kwalba wajen kada nono (’ya’yan kuka), to, idan an zubar da su a wuri, sai a ga wata bishiyar ta sake tsirowa. Har ma sai da ta kai ga cewa kowane gida, akwai kuka a cikinsa. Wani gidan ma har sama da daya akan samu.

Wanzuwar tsofaffin kukoki da yawaitarsu a wannan tsohon gari ke nuna cewa a da can baya, garin ya cika da gidajen mutane.

Sai dai, duk da cewa Fulanin garin ba su taba gina ganuwa ba kasancewar su matafiya ba mazauna ba, idan labarin yaki ya zo sukan shige birnin Getso ne wanda wani Bamaguje mai suna Babbaka Toro ya kafa don neman mafaka.

Daga al’adun mutanen garin kuwa, sharo ne ya fi shahara, wanda suka ce a da can a duk shekara mutane mata da maza daga garuruwa makwabta na taruwa a kofar gari, kusa da wasu duwatsu a yi kwana biyu ana sharo, ana kiɗan kotso da gangi har ma da kidan Balaye wadda ake mata  rawar juya-juya.

Daga wannan garin ne aka samu wani maharbi mai suna Ganjigo ya tashi har ya je ya gina garin Walawa a kasar Karaye da kuma wani gari mai suna Kafin-Allah-Gaba a kasar Zazzau.

Don haka mazauna garin sun tafi a kan cewa babban labarin da kukokin garin ke bayarwa shi ne jimawar al’umma a cikinsa, domin kuwa sai da mutane suka soma zama sannan kukokin garin suka fito.

Har ma wani dattijo ya ce akwai wata kuka da ta fito a gidansu suna yara, sama da shekara hamsin ba ta girma ba har zuwa yau, don haka ya ce tabbas akwai shekaru ɗaruruwa ga waɗannan tsofaffin kukoki na garinsu.

Zangon Dan-Nafada

Shi kuma wannan gari, wani mai suna Madugu ne aka ce ya sare shi shekaru daruruwa da suka shuɗe. Rukunin kukokin da suka zagaye garin kaɗai ya isa ya ba da shaidar cewa Hausawa sun jima suna rayuwa a garin.

An ce lokacin da Madugu ya zo wucewa, sai ya yada zango a wannan wuri, don haka sai ake cewa da wurin Zangon Madugu. Daga baya sunan garin ya koma Zangon Dan- Nafada.

A cewar wani mazaunin garin, Babbaka Toro da ya sari garin Getso, a nan ya fara zama tare da Madugu da wasu jama’a kowanne cikin ɗan botonsa, daga bisani ya tashi ya je ya sari Getso.

Da yake shi ma wannan gari cike yake da kukoki, mazauna garin sun tabbatar da cewa sai da mutane suka fara zama sannan kukokin suka fito a dalilin zubar da kwallayensu da akeyi ko’ina idan an shanye.

Don haka, tsufan garin na iya zamowa wasu shekaru sama da shekarun kukokin wannan gari ke nan..

Tsofaffin Hausawa da Fulani da muka tambaya, kusan daukacinsu sun tafi a kan cewa duk kukar da aka gani ba a san lokacin da aka shuka ta ba. Dukkansu sun gamsu cewa manyan kukoki masu alamar shekaru, tasowa suka yi suka gansu.

Haka nan, ana iya lura cewa a gonaki da dazuzzuka inda babu mutane da ke rayuwa a wurin, ba kasafai bishiyar kuka ke fitowa ba. Amma kuma mafi yawan unguwannin Hausawa na tsoffin garuruwa na ɗauke da bishiyoyin kukoki. A wani lokacin ma akan samu bishiyar kuka a kowanne gida ko a bayan kowane gida.

Watakila, hakan na nuna cewa sai da mutane suka fara zama a wannan wuri sannan kukokin suka fito. Idan kuwa hakan ta tabbata, to za mu iya sanin shekarun kukoki a kasar Hausa ta hanyar binciken zamani, sannan watakila za mu iya sanin jimawar lokacin da Hausawa suka fara zama a wannan wuri, ta yadda daga bisani za mu gane gari mafi tsufa a kasar Hausa.

Idan kuma ta tabbata cewa yawan bishiyoyin kuka ke nuni da yawan mutanen da suka rayu a gari, shi ma zai zamo mana ma’auni mafi sauki don gane tsofaffin garuruwan da suka fi tumbatsa da mutane shekaru aru-aru da suka wuce.

Kuka abinci ko magani

Ba a iya kasar Hausa ba, akwai kabilun duniya mabambanta da suke mu’amala da bishiyar kuka. Don haka sanin alakar da ke tsakanin wasu kabilun da bishiyar kuka zai amfane mu wajen sanin alakar kakannin Hausawa da kukoki.

Misali, a kabilar Nkwici ta kasar Malawi, ana kiran bishiyar kuka da suna ‘Bishiyar Rayuwa.’ Saboda a cewarsu, bishiyar na bai wa mazauna kauyuka mafaka a zamanin yaki yayin da mahara suka nufo su. Sannan ana amfani da ganyenta da kuma ’ya’yanta don yin abinci da magani. Har ila yau, akwai camfe-camfe da dama a tattare da ita.

A kasar Madagaska kuwa, an samu wata babbar bishiyar kuka mai kimanin shekara dubu uku, tsayinta zai ta samma kafa 100, faɗinta kuwa an kiyasta sai mutum akalla goma sun kama hannuwan juna za su iya rutsa ta. Mutanen yankin suna matukar girmama wannan kuka, har suna kiranta da ‘Bishiyar Mutuwa’. Domin a nasu fahimtar, duk wanda ya mutu a yankin, nan ruhinsa ke zuwa ya zauna.

A Gundumar Linpopo da ke Afirka ta Kudu, an samu wata babbar bishiyar kuka. Tsayinta da faɗinta sun haura kafa 35  kowanne. Tana da kogo, wanda aka bayyana cewa mutane a can baya sun maida kogon wajen hira ko wajen fakewa, domin an samu wasu abubuwa irin na sojin da da kuma abubuwan mu’amala a ciki. Binciken ‘carbon dating’ na masana kimiyyar zamani ya kiyasta cewa bishiyar ta kai kimanin shekara dubu shida a raye.

Akwai kuma wani abu game da kuka da wani marubuci ɗan kasar Faransa mai suna Richard Mabey ya ruwaito a littafinsa mai suna ‘The Caberat of Plant’ cewar giwaye da manyan namun daji suna zuwa jikin kuka su sha ruwa tun a can baya. Wai da zarar sun hango ta suna cikin ɗimuwar kishi, sai a ga sun nufe ta da gaggawa, sannan su yage bayanta su soma lasa. Daga bisani bincike ya nuna cewa bishiyar na iya tanadin ruwa sama da lita dubu 100 gwargwadon girmanta da adadin shekarunta.

Don haka a nan kasar Hausa, tunda jimawa Hausawa ke amfani da ganyenta wajen yin miya, ’ya’yanta kuma wajen sha, sannan sassakenta wajen yin magani.  Watakila shi ya sa ba a taba raba tsofaffin garuruwan Hausawa  da kukoki, misalin ’Yandoto, Maladawa, Durɓi, Goɗiya, Gaya, Rano, Batsari da wasunsu.

Ana sanin matattarar Hausawa a babban gari daga kukoki.

A duk wani gari, a kan samu wurin da jama’a ke taruwa don aiwatar da wasu lamurori nasu na al’ada, cinikayayya ko wani abu makamancin haka. Don haka a kasar Hausa akasari gindin babbar kuka akan mayar zuwa cibiyar haɗuwa.

A garin Dugabau akwai wata tsohuwar kuka mai suna Jarmai (yanzu ta faɗi) wadda aka ce shekaru da jimawa a gindinta sadaukai masu tafiya yaki ko fatake masu kasuwanci ke sauka a kan hanyarsu ta zuwa birnin Kano.

Don haka kukar babba ce wadda ta fi sauran kukoki tsayi da haɓaka gami da inuwa wadatacciya.

Akwai wata tsohuwar kuka kuma a tsakiyar garin Tsaure wadda take matattarar jama’ar gari domin tattauna mas’alolin da suka taso musu. Irin waɗannan kukoki tsofaffi ne, ta yadda babu wanda zai iya cewa ya san lokacin da aka shuka su, sai dai a kamanta cewa shekarunsu ya kai arbamiyya (400).

Watakila kuma bukatar inuwa ke sanya Hausawa ɓigewa da zama a karkashin bishiyoyin kukoki, amma tana iya yiwuwa akwai wani camfi mai girma a game da haka.

Tsohuwar alakar Hausawa da iskokai

Kasancewar bishiyar kuka na ɗaya daga cikin bishiyoyin da iskokai ke zama a samansu har ma akan ce sarakunan aljannu da yawa sun fi yin fadojinsu a kan bishiyar kuka, don haka akwai alamun  jimawar alaka tsakanin Hausawa da wadancan iskokan.

Mun sani sarai kafin zuwan Musulunci kasar Hausa ana rayuwa ce irin yanayin mai karfi shi ke da iko. Don haka kusan kowane mutum na zamanin yana kokarin rikar wani abu na camfi mai jibi da iskokai wadanda zai rika ba shi kariya a duk lokacin da bukata ta taso, tare kuma da samun biyan bukatarsa.

Don haka akwai yiwuwar wannan camfi ne silar da kusan ɗaukacin Hausawan dauri suke shuka bishiyar kuka a muhallinsu domin samun wata kariya daga makarai.

Zuwa yanzu dai, akwai bishiyoyin kukoki birjik a ɗaukacin tsofaffin biranen kasar Hausa, kuma akwai labarai da yawa kan yawa-yawan manyan kukokin cikinsu, ta yadda wasu ma za ka ji har sunaye aka ba su. Ga kaɗan daga sunayen bishiyoyin kukoki masu ɗauke da wani labari a nan kasar Hausa: Kukar Boka, Kukar Gajere, Kukar Mai rabo, Kukar Allah Ya isa, Kukar Kwanɗi, Kukar Karaya, Kukar Bulokiya, Kukar Jarmai, Kukar Makuwa da sauransu.

Amma fa, muna iya cewa har yanzu akwai ƙarancin sani gare mu dangane da ainihin alaƙar kukoki da Hausawa.

Karshen wannan rubutu ke nan wanda Sadik Tukur Gwarzo ya rubuta

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