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Sharhin Littafin “Kwamfuta” Na Malam Salisu Hassan (Webmaster) (2)

Don fahimtar da mai karatu tsari da hanyoyin sadarwa tsakanin kwamfuta da sauran na’urori da kayayyakin sadarwa, marubucin ya kulla taken Babi na Bakwai da suna: “Communication Debices”.  A nan ne mai karatu zai ga ma’ana da nau’ukan hanyoyin sadarwa da kwamfuta ke dauke da su, tare da tsarin musayar bayanai tsakanin kwamfuta da sauran kayayyakin sadarwa na zamani. A wannan babi ne har wa yau mai littafin ya yi bayanin matakan tsarin sadarwa a kwamfuta da suka hada da: shigar da bayanai da sarrafa bayanai, da fitar da bayanai, sai kuma adana bayanai. Wadannan su ne asalin ayyukan kwamfuta, kuma wadannan matakai take amfani da mu’amala da sauran kayayyaki da na’urorin sadarwa a babin sadarwa.  Daga cikin abubuwa muhimmai da marubucin ya tabo a wannan babi akwai hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani, irin su fasahar Imel, da fasahar Intanet da hanyoyin aikawa da sauti ko amo ta hanyar igiyar wayar sadarwa (Wired Connection) da ta wayar-iska (Wireless). Wadannan bayanai duk Malam Salisu ya yi su ne ta la’akari da na’urar sadarwa ta zahiri.

A Babi na Takwas wanda shi ne babi na karshe a kashi na biyu na littafin, mawallafin ya kawo bayani ne kan mahadar sadarwa, wato: “Ports,” kamar yadda ya ambaci taken babin a farko.  Fahimtar wannan babi na bukatar misalai sosai.  “Port” mahada ce da kwamfuta ke amfani da ita wajen karbar bayanai rubutattu ko na sauti ko bidiyo. Duk da cewa su ma bangarorin kwamfuta ne na zahiri, amma suna da lambobi da babbar manhajar kwamfuta ke amfani da su wajen karba ko mika bayanai ga mai amfani da kwamfuta. Misali, idan kana son hawa Intanet, kwamfutarka na amfani da dayar hanyoyi biyu ne na zahiri; ko dai ta amfani da igiyar wayar sadarwa ko ta amfani da tsarin sadarwa na wayar-iska. Da wadannan mahadai ne take isar da bukatarta ga kwamfutar da ke dauke da bayanan da kake bukata a wata jiha daban.  Da zarar sakon ya iso, babbar manhajar kwamfutarka kan yi amfani da lambar mahadar sadarwa ta 80 (Port 80), wadda ita ce mahadar da manhajar ka’idar sadarwar Intanet mai suna: “Hypertedt Transfer Protocol – http” ke amfani da ita wajen karba da aika bayanai a tsarin sadarwa ta Intanet.  Idan bangaren fasahar Imel ne, akwai ka’idar sadarwa ta Imel mai suna “POP3” ko “SMTP” da ke karbar sakonni ta mahada mai lamba ta 110 ko 25, misali. Wadannan lambobi suna da alaka da waccan mahadar sadarwa, wadda mai karatu na iya ganin ramukanta a jikin akwatin kwamfuta in ta tebur ce (Desktop), ko a gefenta (in nau’in Laptop ce). Kyakkyawan karatun wannan babi zai ilimantar da mai karatu matuka kan falsafar sadarwa ta kwamfuta.

A bangaren karshen littafi, kamar yadda na lura, marubucin ya gina babi guda uku ne, wadanda suka kunshi bayanai kan ruhin kwamfuta, wato manhaja ko masarrafar da take rayuwa a kansu ke nan. Dama manyan bangarorin kwamfuta guda biyu ne; bangaren farko shi ne gangar-jikin da muke gani kuma muke iya tabawa.  Bangare na biyu kuma shi ne ruhinta, wato bangaren da dan Adam ba ya iya tabawa sai dai ya gan shi a aikace.  Idan babu wannan bangare, kwamfuta ta zama kango ke nan.

Babi na Tara shi ne ke kunshe da mukaddima kan ma’ana da hakikanin manhajar kwamfuta, wadda marubucin ya kira da suna: “Software,” kamar yadda ya ayyana sauran taken babi-babin da suka gabace shi. A wannan babi har wa yau, ya yi bayani kan tasirin wannan bangare na kwamfuta, tare da bambance tsakanin manyan nau’ukan manhajar kwamfuta; “System Software,” da kuma “Application Software” don samun kyakkyawar fahimta ga mai karatu.  Ya kuma karashe ragowar babin ne da bayani kan ma’ana da nau’ukan “System Software,”,wato: “Utility Software” da “Operating System” da kuma “Debice Driber”.  A Babi na Goma kuma ya ci gaba da bayani kan daya nau’in manhajar kwamfuta, wato: “Application Software”. Wannan shi ne nau’in manhajar kwamfuta da galibin jama’a suke amfani da ita a kwamfutoci ko wayoyinsu na salula ko wasu kayayyakin sadarwa na zamani. Sai babi na karshe, wato Babi na Goma Sha Daya, wanda ya kunshi bayani kan fasahar Intanet: ma’ana da asali da tarihi da kuma fa’idojin da fasahar Intanet ke dauke da su.  Wannan shi ne babin karshe da ke littafin.

Tsokaci da ta’aliki

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Wannan littafi ne mai girman gaske wanda marubucinsa bai yi kasa a gwiwa ba wajen taskance muhimman bangarorin ilimin da suka shafi kwamfuta musamman a wannan zamani da muke ciki.  Malamin ya yi amfani da salo uku ne muhimmai wajen karantar da mai karatu. Salo na farko shi ne tsarin fayyace ma’anar kalma ko wata na’ura da yake bayani a kanta. Wannan a bayyane yake ga duk wanda ya karanta wannan littafi. Salo na biyu shi ne amfani da misalai, wajen bayanin wani tsari na gudanuwa ko samuwa ko sarrafa wani yanayi na sadarwa.  Su ma ire-iren wadannan misalai a warwatse suke cikin littafin birjik.  Sai salo na uku wanda ya kunshi amfani da tarihi wajen fahimtar da mai karatu asali da samuwar wata fasaha ko na’ura.

Don tabbatar da kyakkyawar fahimta a kwakwalwar mai karatu, mawallafin ya sanya hotuna na na’urori ko kayayyakin fasahar da yake bayani a kai, a dukkan inda bukatar haka ta taso. Sannan ya yi amfani da jadawali (table) mai tsawo wajen kawo kalmomi 500 na Ingilshi masu alaka da ilimin kwamfuta tare da bayanin ma’anarsu.

 

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A latsa wannan alamar domin shiga zauren Jaridar Aminiya