Da Dumi Dumi
ADVERTISEMENT

Tarihin Daular Borno

Daular Borno tsohuwar Daula ce a Afirka da aka kafa tun kafin karni na 10 wacce ta hada da yankunan da yanzu ke cikin Najeriya da Nijar da Chadi da Kamaru da Sudan har Libya. 

ADVERTISEMENT

Daular Kanem ta El Kanemi ta samo asali ne daga daular Saifuwa. 

Masana tarihi sun ce mutanen Saifuwa daga Yemen ne suka fara kafa daular musulunci a Borno, tsawon shekara 1000 da suka gabata. 

ADVERTISEMENT

Muhammad al-Amin ElKanemi ya kafa Daular Kanem ne a karni na 18, bayan kawar da daular Saifuwa wadanda sarakunanta suka yi mulki shekaru da dama. 

BBC Hausa ta duba tarihin Daular Borno ta hanyar tattaunawa da Masana tarihi Alhaji Zanna Hassan Boguma, daraktan da ke kula da al’amuran masarautu a Borno, da Farfesa Adam Muhammad Ajiri na sashen nazarin addinin Islama a Jami’ar Maiduguri. 

Asalin kalmar Borno 

Rubuce-rubucen masana tarihi sun nuna cewa Kalmar Borno ta samo asali ne daga kalmomin Larabci, “Bahar Nur” wato ma’ana kogin haske. 

Kuma saboda kasancewar Borno gidan Al’kur’ani gidan Musulunci ne, dalilin ke nan da ya sa sarakunan farko suke kiranta “Bahar Nur”, ma’ana kogin haske na musulunci.

Tushen Borno 

Tarihi ya nuna cewa Kanuri da suka kafa Borno daga Yemen suka fito, wato tsatson wani sarki da aka yi a Yemen Said Ibn Dhi Yazan da ake kira Malik al-Himyari tun kafin zamanin Annabi SAW, wanda ya kafa dauloli a India da Fasha. 

Tarihi ya nuna mutanen Ibn Dhi Yazan suna cikin wadanda suka amince su ba sahabban Annabi SAW mafaka bayan hijirarsa daga Makkah zuwa Madinah. 

Yemen ne asalin Kanurin da suka kafa mulki a Borno daga daular Saifuwa’ a cewar Zanna Hassan Boguma. 

Borno a zamanin Sahabbai 

Daular Borno ta yi zamani da Sahabbai, kuma masanin tarihi Alhaji Zanna Hassan Boguma ya ce daular ta kafu ne tun kafin zuwan Annabi SAW. 

A cewarsa tarihi ya nuna sarakunan Borno sun aika da wasika suna neman malamai da za su koyar da addini zuwa ga Amr al-As gwamnan Misra, wanda shi kuma ya tura Ukba Ibn Nafi. 

“Sarakunan Borno sun karbi malamai daga wajen Ibn Nafi a zamanin Sayyadina Umar RA”. 

Amma Zanna Hassan Boguma ya ce wasu litattafan tarihi sun nuna cewa a zamanin Sayyadina Usman RA ne. 

Sai dai Farfesa Adam Muhammad Ajiri ya ce Gwamnan daular Maghribi a Arewacin Afirka Ukba Ibn Nafi yakinsa har ya kawo Borno a shekarar 666, kuma zamanin Khulafa’ur Rashidun ya fara ne daga 632 har zuwa 660. 

Ya ce ba za a iya cewa sun yi zamani da sahabbai ba, amma ana ganin watakila a lokacin akwai daular musulunci a Borno, ko da yake an fi tabbatarwa a zamanin Umayyad daga 661 zuwa 750. 

“A lokacin akwai binciken da ya nuna daga shekarar 661 zuwa 670 akwai malamai daga daular Umayyad da suka shigo yankin Maghrib har suka iso Borno,” in ji Farfesa Ajiri. 

Saifawa a Borno da kafuwar El K anemi 

Saifawa su ne asalin sarautar Borno, kuma Zanna Boguma ya ce dalilin da ya sa ake kiransu Saifuwa saboda sun fito ne daga Said Ibn Dhi Yazan. 

Tarihi ya nuna Saifawa sun yi sarauta sama da shekara 1000 inda suka yi sarakuna kimanin 113, tun kafin karni na bakwai. 

Farfesa Ajiri ya ce bayan Saifuwa sun ci Zaghawa da yaki ne suka kafa daular musulunci a Borno, kuma sun kafa daula ne daga wajajen karni na shida. 

Sarakunan farko a daular Saifuwa sun hada da Mai Dugu a shekarar 785 da Mai Fune a shekarar 835 da Mai Aritso a 893, da Mai Katuri a 942 da Mai Ayoma a 961 da Mai Bulu a 1019 da Mai Arki a 1035 da Mai Shu a 1077. 

“Tun zamanin Sarkin Saifuwa Mai Hume Djilme a wajajen 1080 aka fara daula ta musulunci har zuwa sauran sarakunan da aka yi,” a cewar Zanna Boguma. 

Ya ce, a zamanin daular musulunci ta Saifuwa an yi Sarakuna da suka hada da Mai Dunama Humemi da ya yi mulki daga shekarar 1098 zuwa 1150 da Mai Biri Ibn Dunoma da ya yi mulki daga shekarar 1150 zuwa 1176 da Mai Bikoru Ibn Biri Dunomami da ya yi zamani daga 1176 zuwa 1193. 

Mai Ahmad ne Sarkin Saifuwa na karshe, kafin zamanin daular ElKanemi. 

SARAKUNAN SAIFAWA A GAZARGAMU KAFIN ELKANEMI 

• Mai Ali Gaji Ibn Dunoma 1465 – 1497 

• Mai Idris Katagarma 1497 – 1519 

• Mai Muhammed Ibn Idris 1519 – 1538 

• Mai Ali Dinar Ibn Idris 1538 – 1538 

• Mai Dunoma Ibn Muhammad 1539 – 1557 

• Mai Abdallah Ibn Dunoma I 1557 – 1564 

• Mai Idris Alauma Ibn Ali II 1564 – 1596 

• Mai Muhammad Ibn Idris II 1596 – 1617 

• Mai Ibrahim Ibn IDris II 1617 – 1619 

• Mai Umar Ibn IDris II 1619 – 1639 

• Mai Ali Ibn Umar 1639 – 1677 

• Mai Idris Ibn Ali 1677 – 1696 

• Mai Dunoma II Ibn Ali 1686 – 1715 

• Mai Hamdu Ibn Ali 1715 – 1729 

• Mai Muhammad Ibn Hamdu 1729 – 1744 16. 

• Mai Dunoma III Ibn Muhammad 1744 – 1747 17 

• Mai ALi Ibn Hamdu 1747 – 1792 

• Mai Ahmad III Ibn Ali 1792 – 1808 

• Mai Dunoma Ibn Ahmad 1808 – 1811 

• Mai Muhammad Ngeleruma 1811 – 1814 21 

• Mai Dunoma na biyar Ibn Ahmad 1814 – 1817 

• Mai Ali Ibn Ibrahim (Minargema) 1846 – 1846 

Sarakunan El Kanemi 

Kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata an yi shekaru da dama da kafuwar Daular Borno kafin zuwan ElKanemi. Sarakunan Borno zamanin daular Elkanemi kafin Rabeh ya ci Borno da yaki sun hada da: 

• Shehu Mohammed Al-Amin Elkanemi 1814- 1846

• Shehu Umar Kura Umar (1835 – 1853) Dan Shehu Mohammed Elkanemi

• Shehu Abdul Rahman Ibn Muhammad Elkanemi – 1853 – 1854

• Shehu Umar Kura Ibn Muhammad Elkanemi- 1854 – 1880

• Shehu Bukar Zarami Kura Ibn Umar – 1880 – 1884

• Shehu Ibrahim Ibn Umar – 1884 – 1885 

• Shehu Hashimi Ibn Umar – 1885 – 1893 

• Shehu Kyari Ibn Bukar Zarami – 1893-1894

• Shehu Sanda Limananbe Wuduroma Ibn Bukar Zarami – 1894

 

Wanene Rabeh? 

Rabeh Zubair Ibn Fadlallah mutum ne da ya taso daga Sudan, wanda ke sana’ar fataucin bayi. 

Masanin tarihi Zanna Boguma ya ce fataucin bayi ne dalilin da ya sa Rabeh ya yaki Borno . 

A 1893 ne Rabeh ya kawo wa Borno hari. 

“Rabeh Zubair Ibn Fadlallah ne ya rushe tsohuwar daular Borno bayan ya kaddamar da yaki kuma ya samu galabar kwace iko ya mayar da Dikwa a matsayin babban birnin daularsa”.

Rabeh ya kashe sarakunan Borno guda biyu, Shehu Kyarimi da Shehu Sanda Wudoroma.

A 1900 sojojin Faransa na mulkin mallaka suka kashe Rabeh bayan ya yi mulki a shekaru bakwai da watanni bakwai da kwanaki bakwai a Borno. 

Bayan sun kashe Rabeh ne suka aza Shehu Sanda Kura daga zuriyar Elkanemi a matsayin Shehun Borno a Dikwa a 1900.

A 1901 suka tube shi suka kuma doura dan uwansa Umar Abubakar Garbai, kakan Shehun Borno na yanzu.

Tsarin sarautar Borno

An kafa masarautar Borno da al’adunta ne a kan tsari na musulunci. 

Masanin tarihi Zanna Boguma ya ce a zamanin farko na El Kanemi an bi tsari ne irin na khalifancin Manzo SAW. 

Ya ce El Kanemi yana da mashawarta guda hudu wadanda kuma suka kasance kamar majalisar Koli. 

“Mutanen sun hada da Malam Muhammed Terab da Malam Ahmad Gonimi da Ibrahim Wadaima da Aji Sudani wadanda suka taimaka masa wajen shinfida tsari na shari’a da adalci a Borno.” 

Amma ya ce bisa tsari na al’ada Borno tana da tsarin sarautu 3,333, wadanda suka kunshi na ‘ya’yan gidan sarki da fadawa da bayi da na Malamai. 

Sannan akwai sarautu na sana’o’i kamar na wanzanci da kira da rini. 

Amma sarautun da suke da girma da kima sun kai 313. 

Wannan makala ce da BBC ta rubuta bayan ta bukaci masu sauraro su aiko tambayoyinsu a kan tarihin daular Borno