Da Dumi Dumi

Tarihin Masarautar Ilorin

Fadar Masarautar Ilorin

A wannan mako Aminiya ta yi nazari tare da tattaro wasu daga cikin rubutun masana dangane da tarihin Masarautar Ilorin. Ilorin, ita ce hedkwatar Jihar Kwara, sannan fadar Masarautar Ilorin. Tana da nisan kilomito 450 idan aka bi hanyar Ilorin zuwa Mokwa, zuwa Bida, Zuwa Minna, Zuwa Bwari, zuwa Abuja. Idan kuma ta hanyar Lakwaja ce, to za ta kusan kilomita 500 zuwa Abuja. Dangane da yaushe aka kafa wannan wuri akwai ƙaulani. Sai dai, abu mafi shahara shi ne; wannan gari da kuma masaurata mai cike da abubuwan al’ajabi, wani yanki ce a tsohuwar Daular Oyo.

Birnin Ilorin, matattara ce ta Kabilu mabambanta da suka zama abu guda tare da Yarbanci a matsayin babban harshe da Fulani a matsayin sarakuna. Wato al’adar Yarabawa ita ce babbar al’adar garin, sannan kuma Fulani suke sarautar garin:

 

Tushe

Ra’ayin marubuta sun saɓa dangane da lokacin da wannan gari na Ilorin ya fara. Amma waDansu da dama daga cikinsu sun tafi a kan cewa Ilorin yanki ne a ƙarshen Arewancin Daular Oyo ta wancan lokaci wanda jama’a ke zaune a warwatse. (Awolabi da Adio, 2013; Omoiya,2013). Akwai ƙabilun Ojo Ise Kuse da Asaju da Okesuna da kuma Fulani da ke zaune warwatse a yankin kowa na zaman kansa. (Omiya, 2013).

ADVERTISEMENT

 

Kafuwar garin Ilorin

Jama’ar da ke zaune warwatse a wancan yanki suna fuskantar matsanancin zalunci daga hannun Sarkin Oyo na wancan zamani, saboda haka a farko-farkon ƙarni na 19 sai wani mayaƙi mai suna Afonja, wanda ke a matsayin Sarkin Yaƙin Oyo a lokacin, kuma haifaffen yankin Ilorin (Ashiwaju et al, 1991; Awolabi da Adio, 2013), ya bijire wa waccan Daula ta Oyo, da nufin ƙwato ’yancin waɗannan jama’a da ake zalunta. Amma a ruyawar ‘Kunne ya girmi kaka’, ya zo cewa shi Afonja mayaƙin gaske ne da ke iya fita yaƙi shi kaɗai, to a irin wannan fitar ce bayan an tura shi yaƙi kuma ya samu galaba, a kan hanyarsa ta komawa Oyo, sai ya yada zango a garin Ilorin da nufin kafa tasa daular.

Da Afonja ya bijire wa Daular Oyo, sai ya riƙa gayyato dukkan sauran jama’ar da ke warwatse a sassa daban-daban da ke kewaye da wannan wuri da nufin su zo su zauna waje guda su haɗa ƙarfi-da-ƙarfe su yaƙi wannan mummunar danniya da zalunci ta Daular Oyo. Jama’a da suka haɗa da ’yan kasuwa waɗanda haraji ya addaba da bayi da ake musgunawa da Fulani makiyaya da malamai da kuma asalin marhaban da ke zaune a wannan yanki, sai suka riƙa yin tururuwa zuwa wannan yanki, suna masu amsa wannan gayyata ta Afonja. Daga cikin gaggan mutanen da Afonja ya gayyata zuwa wannan yanki akwai wani mashahurin malami mai suna Shehu Alimi, amma asalin sunansa shi ne Sheikh Salihu Ibn Janta kamar yadda ya zo a (Kwara State Unibersity, 2011), Bafullace ne, sannan akwai wani hamshaƙin attajiri Bayarabe mai suna Sholaberu. An gayyaci Shehu Alimi zuwa wannan gari don ya bada gudunmawa ta fuskar addu’a kamar yadda ya saba a waccan Daula ta Oyo. Shehu Alimi da Sholaberu dukkansu mazauna garin Kuwu ne. Ɗanmole (1980), kamar yadda ya zo a (Omiya, 2014).

 

Narkewar garin Ilorin zuwa masarauta

Kafuwar Masarautar Ilorin ta biyo bayan ayyana jihadi ne da wancan mashahurin malami Sheikh Salihu Ibn Janta ya yi a 1823 bayan rasuwar Afonja. Sheikh Salihu Ibn Janta ya rasu bayan rasuwar Afonja da shekara biyu. Kamar yadda ya zo a (Kwara State Unibersity, 2011). Tun daga wancan lokaci, Abdussalami (wanda yake ɗan Shehu Alimi ne) ya ɗaura ɗamarar jihadi inda ya riƙa fatattakar tsohuwar Daular Oyo har sai da ya cim mata ta koma ƙarƙashin mulkin masarautarsa ta Ilorin.

Sarki Abdussalami bayan zamowarsa Sarki, ya fuskanci barazana da dama a ciki da wajen Ilorin. Daga cikin gida akwai barazana ta waɗanda suka so a ce su ne a kan kujerarsa, sannan daga waje akwai abokan adawa da ke hanƙoron ganin wannan jaririyar masarauta ba ta kai ko’ina ba, sannan da babban buri da yake da shi na ganin cewa wannan masarauta ya ɗora ta a turbar addinin Musulunci. (Ɗanmole, 2011).

Duk wannan barazanar, Sarki Abdussalami ya ga ƙarshensu. Da farko ya fara da rubuta wasiƙar neman haɗewa da Daular Shehu Usmanu ta hannun Sarkin Gwandu Abdullahi, wanda ya samu nasarar yin haka. Sannan sai kafa gwamnatin haɗaka da ya yi ta hanyar naɗa wasu mataimaka guda huɗu – akwai Balogun Gambari (Sarkin Hausawa) wanda shi ke kula da dukkan abubuwan da suka shafi Hausawa irin su kasuwancinsu da sauran mayaƙan Hausawa ’yan gudun hijira; akwai kuma Balogun Fulani (Sarkin Fulani), shi ke kula da dukkan Fulani makiyaya da ke zaune warwatse a wannan yankin na Ilorin musamman Kudu da birnin Ilorin; akwai Balogun Alanamu da Akinjobi (Sarkin Yarabawa), wanda shi kuma shi ke kula da dukkan al’amuran da suka shafi Yarabawa. (Ashiwaju et al, 1991; Ɗanmole, 2011).

Wannan naɗi da ya yi na waɗannan mataimaka, ya ba shi cikakkiyar dama ta ɗinke ɓarakar da ke ƙoƙarin kunno kai a cikin gida a wancan lokaci, sannan ita ce har wa yau ta zame masa ƙarfi na tunkarar abokan adawa da ke wajen masarautarsa. Da wannan ƙarfi ya fatattaki sauran garuruwan da ke kewaye da shi inda hakan ya ba shi nasarar faɗaɗa Masarautar Ilorin tun daga garin Ilorin har zuwa fadar tsohuwar Daular Oyo. Samun wannan nasara da wannan masarauta ta Ilorin ta yi a kan sauran yankunan da ke kewaye da ita, ciki har da waccan babbar daula ta Oyo wacce ita kanta Ilorin ta taɓa zama a ƙarƙashinta tun tana ƙauye da zamowar Masarautar Ilorin ƙarƙashin Daular Shehu Ɗan Fodiyo da kuma kasancewar garin Ilorin a ƙarshen Arewa ta Kudu kuma ƙarshen Kudu ta Arewa da ma kasantuwarta ƙasa mai albarkar noma, sun ba wa Ilorin cikakkiyar dama ta samu haɓakar tattalin arziki da bunƙasar ilimi da tasirin siyasa da sauransu, cikin ƙaramin lokaci. Saboda mutane daga sassa daban-daban na duniya sun riƙa tururuwa zuwa garin da nufin hijira ko kasuwanci ko neman ilimi. Ashiwaju et al (1991) ya ce, wacce ta fara ɗaukakuwa a farkon ƙarni na 19 ta hanyar ɗaukar hankali maharba da fatake da kuma riƙe su, zuwa 1840 ta zama katafariyar alƙarya wacce ta haɗiye tsohuwar Daular Oyo.

 

Zuwan Turawan Mulkin Mallaka

Wannan ƙasaitacciyar Daula ta Ilorin mai tarin jama’a da ƙarfin tattalin arziki da haɗin kan jama’a, ta ɗauki hankalin Turawa a wancan lokaci musamman Turawa ’yan kasuwa mazauna Legas, waɗanda suka ga cewa lallai ba makawa sai wannan cibiyar kasuwanci ta faɗa hannunsu. Da farko a 1885, an samu wani kamfani mai suna National African Company da ya yi iƙirarin cewa sun rattaba hannu a kan yarjejeniya su da Masarautar Ilorin, cewa yanzu Masarautar Ilorin ta koma ƙarƙashin Turawa wanda kuma ba hakan ba ne, wani jami’in kamfanin ne ya kai wa Sarkin Ilorin ziyarar ban-girma da nufin leƙen asiri don gane irin ƙarfin sojin da masarautar ke da shi saboda su san ta ina za su ɓullo mata. (Ashiwaju et al, 1991).

Tun daga wancan lokaci Turawa suka kafa wa masarautar ƙahon zuƙa. Suka riƙa cinna wutar rikicin cikin gida da na waje har sai da ta kai ga sun haddasa rikicin da ya kai ga hallaka Sarki Moma a 1895. (Ashiwaju et al, 1991). Duk wannan saboda yaƙi yarda ya miƙa musu wuya shi da jama’arsa. Saboda haka sai suka yi amfani da saɓanin da ke akwai tsakanin Sarki Moma da mataimakansa wato Balogun-Balogun. (Ɗanmole, 2011).

Bayan kashe Sarki Moma, sai Sarki Sulaiman ya gaje shi, wanda shi kuma ya zama ɗan-amshin-shatan waɗancan Balogun ɗin (wato sarakunan Hausawa, Fulani da Yarbawa). Kada a manta da irin gudunmawar da suka bada wajen kafa wannan masarauta ta Ilorin. Tunda farko waɗannan Balogun su suka riƙa dagewa kan lallai Masarautar Ilorin ba za ta miƙa wuya ga Turawa ba. Saboda haka bisa tursasawarsu suka saka Sarki Sulaiman ya aika takarda zuwa Legas cewa kada su sake turo kowane wakili zuwa garinsu, saboda idan wani abu ya faru to ba hannun masarauta a ciki, saboda waɗancan Balogun sun haɗa baki da mabiyansu cewa duk lokacin da wani Bature ya sake zuwa za su fatattake shi don gudun kada a maimaita yaɗa farfaganda cewa sun miƙa wuya, da kuma ganin irin ƙarfin da suke da shi da irin jarumtakar da suke da ita.

Haka dai lamura suka ci gaba da tafiya a cukurkuɗe, Ilorin ta shiga halin takura da ta kai har tana neman goyon bayan sauran garuruwan Yarabawa ciki kuma har da Kamfanin Royal Niger kamar yadda ya zo a Ashiwaju et al (1991). Amma hakan ba ta yiwu ba, a nasa ɓangaren Kamfanin Royal Niger maimakon mara wa Ilorin baya, ya ma riƙa yunƙurin ganin kifewarta ce saboda dukkan ƙarfin tattalin arzikin yankin ya koma hannunsa. Wannan ya faru a ƙarƙashin jagorancin George Goldie.

A ranar 18 ga Fabrairun 1897, George ya jagoranci tawagar da ta ruguza wannan masarauta ta Ilorin. Tun kafin haka sun mamaye fadar Masarautar Ilorin inda suka nemi Sarki Sulaimanu da mabiyansa su miƙa wuya a ruwan-sanyi amma suka ƙi. Saboda haka su kuma suka yi musu luguden wuta, suka dira a kansau, suka fatattaka su. A ranar 19 ga Fabrairun 1897 wannan masarauta ta Ilorin ta faɗa hannun Turawan Ingila. (Ashiwaju et al, 1991; Ɗanmole, 2011).

Bayan wannan fafatawa, yanzu Ilorin ta koma ƙarƙashin mulkin Kamfanin Royal Niger, wanda babbar manufarsa ita ce cin gajiyar wannan ƙarfin tattalin arziki da Ilorin ke da shi saboda zamowarta mahaɗa. Tun daga wannan lokaci har zuwa 1900, Kamfanin Royal Niger ke cin moriyar wannan ƙarfin tattalin arziƙi na Ilorin.

 

Za mu ci gaba

Mun ciro wannan tarihi daga shafin: http://www.cils.unilorin.edu. ng/lecture/PDL.pdf da kuma shafin rumbin ilimi.

 

Share