Da Dumi Dumi
ADVERTISEMENT

Tarihin masarautar Kurama

Mutanen da ake kira da suna “Kurama”, suna kiran kansu “Akurmi”, ma’ana mazauna Kurmi. Tarihi ya nuna cewa a Kano ne aka ba su wannan suna na “Kurama” saboda dangartakarsu da kurmi:

ADVERTISEMENT

An nakalto tarihin Kurama shekaru aru-aru da suka shude da cewa sun samo asali ne daga Madinah zuwa Kanem Borno. Marubutan tarihi na farko kan Kurama sun hada da Kamarsu Meek, Charles Temple and Harold D. Gunn. Meek, ya nuna a takardarsa da ya wallafa mai suna “The tribes of Northern Nigeria”, cewa asalin Kurama daga Kano ne. Kurama sun bar daular Kanem Borno a lokacin da daular ke fama da mahara daga wadansu dauloli, wanda ya sanya dole jama’a su ka yi hijira (hade da Kurama). Daga Borno (inda yanzu ake kira Kondinga), Kurama sun yi hijira zuwa kasar Kano. Lokacin da suka iso Kano sun zauna ne a tsaunukan nan da ke Dala, Gwaron Dutse, Magwan da Fanisau. Kyakkyawan dausayi ya bai wa al’ummar Kurama da sauran al-umma da ke da sha’awar noma da kiwo yanayi mai kyau na sana’arsu ta noma. Shi kanshi wazirin Kano, Abubakar Dokaji ya yarda da wannan ra’ayi a littafinsa mai suna “Kano ta Dobo ci Gari”.

Hijiran al’ummar Kurama daga Kano ya faru ne daidai da bayyanar adinin musulunci kasar Hausa ta hannun Wangara wa a lokacin mulkin Sarki Yaji a shekarar na 1359 zuwa 1396. Wadansu al’umma da suka kaurace wa Kano a wannan lokacin sun hada da Kutumbawa (sune al’ummar Kuturmi da ke karamar Hukumar Kachia na Jihar Kaduna a yau), Gwandara da Abagayawa (da ke Gaya), da Gade, Ningawa da Maguzuwa daga gidan sarautan Maguji. Hijiran da Kurama su ka yi daga Kano zuwa kudu ya hada su da kasar Zazzau a inda suka kasance masu mu’amula da juna.

ADVERTISEMENT

Kurama sun kasance babbar kabila da ta mamaye tsaunuka da farfadun kasa na gabashin Zazzau kafin zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka, kuma haka yake har zuwa wannan lokacin da muke ciki a yau. A lokacin da suka iso Zazzau, mafi yawancinsu sun zauna a tsaunukan Kudaru da wadansu masu yawa a Tudun Wada (Ririwai) na kudancin masarautar Kano. Kuma wadansu daga cikinsu suka bazu har zuwa Arewacin Jos (Filato), da Lame na yammacin masarautar Bauchi. A yau, ana iya bayyana kasar Kurama kamar yadda mawallafin tarihi Farfesa John Garan Nengel ya nuna a kasidarsa mai suna “The Impact of Sokoto Jihad on the Kurama People of Eastern Zazzau” cewa kasar kurama ta yi iyaka da tsaunukan Ningi wanda bangare ne na gabashin Jos Filato, wanda kuma ya yi iyaka ta kudu. A yamma sun yi iyaka da tsaunukan Kauru da Surubu, kuma a kudu sun yi iyaka da farfadun kasar Zazzau da Kano. Haka ma a wadannan wurare da Kurama suka mamaye sun yi makwabtaka da wadansu kabilu kamarsu Jere, Buji, Amo, Chikobo, Janji (Azoko), Piti, Riban, Chawai, Binawa, Gure, Kahugu da sauransu”.

Kafin zuwan jihadin Shehu Usman dan Fodio kasar Hausa, al-ummar Kurama suna da tsarin mulkinsu na gargajiya da kuma a siyasa kamar haka:- A tsarin akwai wadanda ake kira “Harukura” (Shugabanin gidaje) wanda aikinsu shi ne daidaita sabani da rashin fahimta da ta taso tsakanin magidanta. Na biye da su su ne “Haro Anguwa” (masu Anguwanni) wanda aikinsu shi ne tara haraji daga wajen talakokin yankinsu. Na sama su ne wanda ake kira “Agwama” (sarakuna) amma dakatai da ke shugabantar kyauyuka da kewaye, wanda aikin su shi ne karban haraji a madadin hukuma. 

Lokacin da jihadi ya shigo, su Kurama ba a cisu da yaki ba, sun dai shiga wata yarjejeniya na “Amana” tsakanin majilisar sarakunansu da Sarkin Zazzau Yamusa, a shekara ta 1821-34. Bisa kan wannan yarjejeniya ta ‘Amana’, sha’anin tafiyar da mulki kyauyukan da ba na musulmi ba, a tsaunukan Kudaru da kewaye, an gudanar da shi ne bisa kirkiro ofishin “Iyan Kurama” a masarautar. Iyan Kurama’ ya zama cikin manyan mukamai guda uku a sarautan Zazzau. Sauran manyan mukamai su ne Madaki da Wambai, Kamar yadda Hogben da Kirk-Green suka nuna a kasidarsu na shekara 1965. Tun lokacin da al’ummar Kurama suka shiga wannan yarjejeniya da Zazzau na “Amana” suka rasa tsarin irin shugabancin su na baya, sai suka kasance karkashin mulkin Zazzau har zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka wanda suka tarad da tsarin masarautun kasar Hausa (Emirate system), hanya mafi sauki na mulkan sauran al’ummu da suka mallaka. Ba shakka zuwan turawa ya kawo wa al’ummar Kurama koma baya a siyasance musamman lokacin da aka kirkiro Lardin Zazzau a shekarar 1902. kirkiro Lardin Zazzau ya kawo raba kasar Kurama zuwa gundomomi guda uku a shekarar 1907, a lokacin da aka kirkiro Gundumomin Kudaru, Garun Kurama da Lere. Kuma bisa wadansu dalilai aka sake hada wadannan gundumomi guda uku suka zama daya, kuma aka kirashi gundumar Lere. Wannan tsari haka ya kasance har zuwa shekarar 1990 lokacin da aka sake mayar da gundumonin guda uku na farko. Haka ma Kurama sun sake samun koma baya ta kasancewarsu waje daya bisa tsarin mulki (Sarki) daya, saboda daidaita kan iyakokin Larduna da turawan mulki suka yi a Shekarar 1913. Wannan atisaye na daidaita iyakun Larduna ya kawo karkasa gundumar Kudaru na Kurama tsakanin Kano, Bauchi, Zaria da Nasarawa.

Ganin yadda al’ummar Kurama suka tsinci kansu saboda wadannan tsare-tsare da turawa suka kawo, Kurama sun mika kukarsu ga gwamnatin Najeriya ta hannun wani babban mai shari’a da ake kira Irefeke, wadanda da aka basu aikin daidaita kan iyakokin Jihohi da aka kirkiro bayan yakin basasa a shekarar 1970. A cikin takardan da Kurama suka mika wa kwamitin Irefeke a shekarar 1975, sun nemi a dawo masu da kasarsu kamar yadda take kafin zuwan turawa, kuma a kirkiro masu masarauta na kansu, maimakon kasancewar su a karkashir Zazzau, Kano, Bauchi da Nasarawa. Kurama sun yi tsammani cewa da samun ‘yancin kai da Najeriya ta samu bayan tafiyan turawa, da kuma sanye-sanye na tsarin mulki da aka samu, musamman tsarin kananan hukumomi da aka yi a shekarar 1976, al’ummu kamarsu za a basu nasu ‘yanci, amma haka bai kasance ba. Misali, Kurama duk da kasancewarsu al’umma mafi yawa a gundumar Lere, Masarautar Zazzau ba ta ba al’ummar ikon mulkin kansu ba. Zazzau ta rika nada hakimai daga cikin Zariya suna aika su gundumar Lere da sauran gundomomi da Zazzau ta dauka mallakarsu (bassal State). Hakimi na farko da ya mulki gundumar Lere shi ne walin Zazzau, Alhaji Umaru wanda ya zauna tsakanin shekara ta 1936 – 1967. Daga nan masarautar Zazzau ta mashi chanjin wurin aiki zuwa Ikara, aka turo a madadinsa makaman Zazzau, Alhaji Haliru yamaye gurbinsa a gundumar Lere. Alhaji Halliru, makaman Zazzau shi ma ya yi mulkin gundumar daga 1967 – 1986.

Hakika saboda yawan matsawa da al’ummar Kurama suka sa na cewa a basu cin gashin kansu tun shekara na 1975 an sami yarjejeniya tsakanin masarautar Zazzau da al’ummar Kurama cewa bayan Makama ba za su sake aika wani daga Zariya ba ya mulki gundumar Lere. A shekarar 1986 Makaman Zazzau Allah Ya masa rasuwa, kuma bisa wannan yarjejeniya da aka samu a baya, masarautar Zazzau ta ba al’umma da ke wannan gundumar (a karon farko) damar cike gurbin Makama a matsayin hakimin Lere. A wannan lokaci, al’ummar Kurama da Hausawan garin Lere suka nemi a basu shugabancin gundumar Lere. Har saboda zafin gwagwarmiyar da aka yi tsakaninsu, ya so ya kawo rigimar kabilanci. Daga karshe, masarautar Zazzau da gwamnatin Jihar Kaduna suka nada Alhaji Umaru Mohammed Lere a matsayin hakimin Gundumar Lere. Yin haka bai ma al’ummar Kurama dadi ba domin Zazzau ta kauce wa yarjejeniya da suka yi da ita a baya. Kurama sun fito fili sun nuna cewa rashin basu shugabancin gundumar Lere ba a masu adalci ba, in anyi la’akari da yawansu da kuma tarihin cewa su ne mazauna na farko kafin mutanen Lere. Misali, a wannan lokaci Kurama na da dakatai (13), Hausawa (6), Amawa (1), Rumada (1), Janji (1), Kinugu (1), Rumaya (1) da Shenawa (1). Don nuna rashin amincewarsu kan abin da masarautar Zazzau da kuma Gwamnatin Jihar Kaduna suka yi, al’ummar Kurama ta kaisu kara Babbar Kotun Jihar Kaduna. Wannan shari’a ya jawo wa Kurama farin jini ga sauran al’umma a jihar saboda irin ganin yadda suka iya nuna irin danniya da ake so a masu, kuma suka ki amincewa. Daga karshe dai Gwamnatin Jihar Kaduna ta yanke shawaran a dawo da gundomonin nan guda uku na farko domin raba rigima da kuma zaman lafiya.

Saboda haka a shekarar 1990 Gwamnatin Jihar Kaduna ta amince da dawowa da Gundumonin Kudaru, Garun Kurama da Lere. Harda dawo da wadannan Gundomomi guda uku, Kurama an basu shugabancin gundumar Kudaru ne kawai.  An dauko bafullace daga Barikin Ladi (Filato), aka nada shi hakimin Garun Kurama, aka hana ma dagacin Garun Kurama domin ba a so aba Kurama shugabancin gundomi biyu a nuna cewa suke da kasar Lere. Kuma gundumar Lere aka bar ma Alhaji Umaru Mohammed Lere wanda masarautar Zazzau ta nada da farko. Wadannan gundumomi guda uku na karamar Hukumar Lere sun kasance karkashin masarautar Zazzau har zuwa shekara na 2001.

Al’ummar Kurama da sauran kabilu sun yi ta kiraye-kiraye na cewa ya kamata a ba su ‘yancin kansu domin tsarin sarautar Hausawa (Emirate System) bai yi daidai da tsarin al’adu da adininsu ba, amma bai samu dubawa wajen gwamnati ba, sai bayan rigima kan kasuwa a Zangon Kataf tsakanin Hausawa da sauran kabilu na wurin. Rigiman Zangon Kataf ya jawo kashe-kashe na kabilanci da addini. Haka ma bayan rigiman Zangon Kataf an yi ta samun rashin zaman lafiya tsakanin al’ummomi da addinai a Jihar Kaduna wanda ya tilasa wa Gwamnatin Jihar Kaduna ta kafa kwamiti na bincike domin gane dalilai da kuma abubuwan da ke jawo yawan fadace-fadace na kabilanci da addini. Al’ummar Kurama tare da wadansu al’umma a jihar sun mika kasidu zuwa kwamitin, a inda suka nuna cewa hanyoyin samun zaman lafiya a Jihar Kaduna shi ne ko wace al’ummar a ba ta ‘yancin mulkin kanta ta hanyar sarauta wanda yake daidai da al’adarsu da adininsu. Bisa kan shawarwarin da wannan kwamiti ta bayar, a shekarar 1995 Gwamnatin Jihar Kaduna ta sake kafa wani kwamiti na masana, da ya duba yiwuwar karin masarautu a Jihar Kaduna. A wannan lokacin, al’ummar Kurama da goyon bayan sauran kabilu na karamar Hukumar Lere (kamarsu Gure, Kahugu, Amawa, Piti da Hausawan garin Saminaka) sun mika kasida na neman a kirkiro masarautar Kurama mai hedkwata a Saminaka. A lokacin da wannan kwamiti na masana suka mika rohotonsu, a lokacin mulkin Kanar Lawal Ja’afaru Isa, an kirkiro masarautu guda hudu. Masarautun su ne Atayp, Sanga, Bajju da Kagoma. A wannan atisaye da aka yi, Kurama an hana su, aka ba  Kagoma, domin suna da wani cikin gwamnati wanda ya nuna idan aka  ba Kurama za a samu rigima tsakaninisu da mutanen Lere.

Har da rasa shiga wannan tsarin na farko na karin masarautu da Kurama suka fuskanta, ba su yi sanyi a gwiwa ba, suka ci gaba da neman masarautarsu har zuwa dawowan siyasa a shekarar 1999. Lokacin da siyasa ta dawo, an sake samun rigingimu na addini, musamman lokacin da wadansu gwamnotoci na jihohin Arewa suka kawo maganar Shari’a. A Jihar Kaduna, an samu tashin rikice-rikice na addini da kabilanci har ya sa gwamnatin Ahmed Mohammed Makarfi ta kafa kwamiti na karin masarautu. A shekarar 2001 Gwamnatin Ahmed Mohammed Makarfi ta kirkiro masarautu da dama a Jihar Kaduna wanda ya hada da masarautar Kurama. Gundumar Kudaru ita aka daga ta zama masarautar Kurama, kuma aka nada Alhaji Tanimu Shu’aibu ya zama Sarkin kurama (Bugwam Kurmi) na farko. Bayan rasuwarsa ne aka nada Dokta Ishaku Damina ya maye gurbinsa a matsayin Sarkin Kurama (Bugwam Kurmi) na biyu.  Shi ne Sarkin Kurama (Bugwan Kurmi) a yanzu. Sauran gundomi biyu na Karamar Hukumar Lere su ma an daga gundumar Garun Kurama ta zama masarautar Piriga. Kuma Gundumar Lere aka raba ta kashi biyu suka zama masarautun Saminaka da Lere a yau.

Ba shakka, wannan mataki da gwamnatin Ahmed Mohammed Makarfi ta dauka na bai wa kowace al’umma ‘yancin mulkin kanta ya kawo zaman lafiya a Jihar Kaduna, domin tun wannan lokacin ba a sake samun tashin hankali ko kuma fada na kabilanci ko addini ba har zuwa wannan lokacin da muke ciki.

Wanda ya rubuto wannan tarihin: Mista Dauda N. Barau. shi ne Shugaban Hadaddiyar Al’ummar Kurama na kasa