Da Dumi Dumi

Tasirin ci gaban kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa ga zamantakewar dan Adam a duniya (2)

 

Ma’anonin kalmomi a warware

Cikin wadannan jerin makaloli da muka fara kwararowa makon jiya, za mu fuskantar da bayaninmu ne kan manyan fannoni guda uku.  Na farko shi ne ci gaban da aka samu kuma ake ci gaba da samu a fannin kimiyyar dabi’ar halitta, wato Genetics.  A wannan bangare bayaninmu zai dogara ne kacokan kan irin sauye-sauyen da ake samu wajen jirkitawa ko “gyara” tsari da kintsin dabi’ar dan Adam. Bangare na biyu da za mu mayar da hankalinmu shi ne bangaren kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa da irin ci gaban da aka samu kuma ake samu a kai. Sai kuma bayani kan fasahohin da ake amfani da su wajen aiwatar da wadannan sauye-sauye. A karshe dai bayaninmu zai tuke ne kan tasirin hakan ga rayuwa da al’adu da kuma zamantakewar dan Adam a wannan duniya. Amma kafin nan, zan so mu fahimci ma’anonin kalmomin da za su yi ta maimaituwa a yayin da muke bayani kan sauye-sauyen da ake samu a bangaren kimiyyar dabi’ar halitta, “Genetics.”                                                                                                 Bayanan da ke tafe dai tunatarwa ce ga wanda ya taba karanta makalarmu ta farko mai taken: “Tsarin Gadon Dabi’u da Siffofin Halitta.”

Wannan sashen bincike yana da muhimmanci, domin ya kunshi matakin farko ne da zai taimaka wa mai karatu fahimtar sauran abubuwan da ke tafe. A takaice dai ma iya kiransa “Tubalin Fahimta.”

Kalmar farko ita ce: “Kwayar Halitta” wacce a harshen Turancin Malaman Kimiyya suke kira da suna “Cell.”  Wannan ita ce asalin rayuwa ta duk wani halitta mai rai baki daya; daga dabbobi zuwa mutane da bishiyoyi. Duk wani abu mai rai a tare da shi, to asalinsa daga wannan kwayar halitta ce, wato “Cell.”  Wannan kwayar halitta ido ba ya iya riskarta, kuma Allah Ya watsa ire-irenta da yawa a cikin jikin dan Adam, misali.  Duk bayanan da za su zo kan tsarin gadon dabi’un halitta suna dogaro ne kacokan kan wannan tubali, wato kwayar halitta.  Sai kalmar “Cell Membrane,” wato “Tantanin Kwayar Halitta” ke nan na can ciki. Wannan tantani aikinsa ne bayar da kariya ga dukkan madaukan da ke cikin Kwayar Halitta. Kuma shi ne ganuwa ta biyu daga cikin kwayar halitta, bayan ganuwar waje mai suna “Cell Wall.” Sai kalmar “Cytoplasm,” wadda a harshen Hausa na kira “Ruwan Rayuwa.” Wannan ruwa yana cikin kwayar halitta ce, a cikin ganuwar “Tantanin Kwayar Halitta” da bayaninsa ya gabata, kuma yana daga cikin abubuwa masu matukar mahimmanci da ke dauke a cikin Kwayar Halitta baki daya. Wadansu malaman Musulunci masu kokarin fahimtar tsarin halitta ta nassoshin Kur’ani ma suna ganin wannan ruwa ne Allah ke ishara zuwa gare shi, da Ya ce Ya halicci kowace dabba ce daga ruwa.

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Bayan “Ruwan Rayuwa” (Cytoplasm), sai abu mai muhimmanci na gaba, wato “Asalin Sinadarin Halitta” wanda a harshen Turanci ake kira “Nucleus.”  “Nucleus” yana  cikin harabar tantanin kwayar halitta ce shi ma, kuma shi ne jigo a fannin binciken sanin tsarin gadon dabi’u da siffofin halitta a kimiyyance. Domin shi ne yake dauke da dukkan abubuwan da bincikenmu ke dogaro a kansu wajen sanin tsarin gadon dabi’un halitta. A cikin wannan “Asalin Sinadarin Halitta” (Nucleus) ne ake samun “Chromosome,” wato “Ma’adanar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta.”  Kowace kwayar halitta na dauke da tagwayen “Ma’adanar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta” guda 23 ne. Wannan ke nuna cewa a cikin kowanne, za a samu guda 46 ke nan (23 d 2 = 46). Dukkan wadannan ma’adanar bayanan dabi’ar halitta iri daya ne, a jikin mutum daya, duk da yake kowane dan Adam nasa sun sha bamban da na waninsa.  Kowane dayan tagwayen “Ma’adanar Bayanan Dabi’a” kuma na dauke ne da zaren “Madarar Bayanan Dabi’ar Halitta” da ake kira “Deodyribonucleic Acid” ko “DNA” a takaice. Wannan zare a siffar sarka yake, mai harde da juna. Kuma a jikin layin wannan sakakken zare ne ake da “Kwayoyin Dabi’ar Halittar” kowane dan Adam. Wadannan kwayoyin dabi’un halitta su ake kira “Genes.”  Kowane dan Adam yana kebantuwa ne da kwayoyin dabi’un halitta daban da suka sha bamban da na wani, wadanda ya gado su daga wajen iyayensa ko kakanninsa ko kakannin kakanninsa, har dai abin ya kai ga Annabi Adamu da Hauwa’u, (AS).

Sai kalmar “Allele,” wato “Dabi’ar Halitta ta Musamman.” Misali, daga cikin dabi’u da siffofin halitta akwai tsayi, da gajarta da saurin fushi da fara’a da sanyin zuciya da zafin rai da sauransu.  Wadannan dukkansu “Dabi’un Halitta ne na Musamman,” wato “Allele. Sai kalmar “Trait,” wato “Kebantacciyar Dabi’ar Halitta,” wajen rinjaye ko rauni ake nufi. Idan mutum yana da wata dabi’a ta halitta mai rinjaye, wacce ke bayyana a jikin ’ya’yansa, wannan ita ake kira “Dominant Trait,” wato “Dabi’a Mai Rinjaye.” Idan kuma dabi’ar halittarsa ba ta iya bayyana a fili, saboda rinjayar da dabi’ar halittar matarsa ko ta mahaifinsa suka yi a kan nasa, sai a kira wannan da sunan “Recessibe Trait,” wato “Dabi’a Nakasasshiya” ke nan.

A mako mai zuwa za mu ci gaba.  A ci gaba da kasancewa tare da mu.

 

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