Da Dumi Dumi

Tasirin ci gaban kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa ga zamantakewar dan Adam a duniya (3)

Matashiya

A makon jiya mun fara gudanar da bayanai kan shahararrun kalmomi da suka shafi fannin kimiyyar dabi’u da siffofin halitta. A wancan karo mun dakata da bayani ne kan ma’anar dabi’a mai rinjaye da nakasasshiyar dabi’a, wato: “Dominant and Recessibe Traits.” A yau za mu ci gaba, inda za mu dora bayani kan kalmar “Genotype” da ragowar kalmomin da suka rage. Bismillah!

Ma’anonin kalmomi a warware

Sai kalmar “Genotype” wato “Nau’in dabi’ar halitta” na wani mutum da ake iya gane shi da ita. Kowane dan Adam idan aka aiwatar da gwajin dabi’ar halitta (DNA test) daga kwayoyin halittarsa za a samu yana da kebantacciyar dabi’a ta musamman wanda babu mai irinta, kuma duk wanda ya dangance shi daga cikin ’ya’yansa, za a iya gane dangantakarsu ta wannan hanya. Wannan shi ne abin da Gwamnatin Jihar Legas ta yi a kan gawawwakin wadanda suka rasa rayukansu a hadarin jirgin Dana Air da ya auku a shekarun baya. Ana amfani da wannan hanya ce wajen kokarin gane wane ne wane? Kuma wa ke da alaka da wane? Wadannan al’amura ne da ke boye cikin kwayoyin halittar dan Adam, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata.  Sai kalmar “Genetic Code,” wato “Tambarin Dabi’ar Halitta.” Jerin haruffa ne da ke wakiltar bayanan dabi’un halittar kowane dan Adam, wadanda ke da alhakin haifar da gadon dabi’a daga maihaifi a misali, zuwa kan ’ya’ya ko jikokinsa.

Kalma ta gaba ita ce kalmar “Phenotype”, wato “Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta ta Zahiri.”  Kamar yadda ake amfani da “Genotype” don gano alaka da dangantaka ta hanyar kwayoyin dabi’ar halitta da ke boye a kwayar halittar jikin mutum, to, haka tsarin “Phenotype” yake wajen gano dangantakar halitta, amma na zahiri; tsawo ne, gajarta ne, fadi ne, sirantaka ne, fari ne, baki ne, da dai sauransu.  A takaice dai, “Phenotype” shi ne “Nau’in Dabi’ar Halitta ta Zahiri” da ake iya gani. Domin akwai dalilai guda biyu da ke haddasa tsarin gadon dabi’un halitta a tsakanin halittu. Dalilin farko shi ne bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin kwayoyin halitta, wato “Cell” ke nan, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama. Dalili na biyu kuma shi ne tasirin muhallin da halittu ke zama a cikinsa ko a harabarsa, wajen sauya dabi’ar halitta daga wanda ake gado zuwa mai gado.

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Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Gene Mutation,” wato “Canjin Dabi’ar Halitta.” Wannan kan faru ne idan aka samu kari ko ragi ko jirkicewar yanayin dabi’un halitta, daga cikin kwayoyin halittar mutum.  Misali, mutum na iya rayuwa shekara goman farkon rayuwar aurensa yana haifar ’ya’ya masu kama iri daya na dabi’ar halitta, sai a gaba ya samu wadansu ’ya’ya masu bambancin dabi’ar halitta daban da wacce ’ya’yansa na farko suke da ita, sanadiyyar wancan dalili. Idan haka ta faru, to, an samu “Sauyin Dabi’ar Halitta” ke nan daga kwayoyin halittar da ke jikinsa ko na matarsa. Wannan shi ake kira “Gene Mutation.”  Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Genetic Disorder,” wacce ke nufin “Tangardar Dabi’ar Halitta.”  Wannan tangarda na haifar da cuta ce ta musamman, misali kamar su cutar sankara da sauransu, kuma hakan na faruwa ne sanadiyyar canji ko sauyin dabi’un halitta da ke cikin kwayoyin halittar uba ko uwa, mai dauke da dabi’ar halitta mafi rinjaye, wato “Recessibe Trait.”  Wasu cututtukan kan samu ne ta hanyar gado daga uba ko uwa masu dauke da cutar, wasu kuma kan samu ne sanadiyyar “Canjin Dabi’ar Halitta” (Gene Mutation) da ya faru daga baya, a kwayoyin halittar mai gadar da dabi’ar.

Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Gene Therapy,” wato “Magance Tangardar Halitta.” Ana kuma yin haka ne ta hanyar maye gurbin dabi’un halittar da suka lalace ko masu haddasa tangarda ta hanyar gadar wa ’ya’ya cututtuka na musamman, da wasu dabi’un halitta (Genes) masu kyau, wadanda suke lafiyayyu. Fannin “Gene Therapy” ne ke magance matsalolin “Genetic Disorder,” wato “Tangardar Dabi’ar Halitta.” Sai kalma ta gaba, wato “Heredity.”  Abin da wannan kalma ke nufi shi ne, tsarin “Gadon Dabi’un Halitta” daga mai gadarwa (uba ko uwa) zuwa mai gado (’ya’ya ko jikoki). Wadannan dabi’un halitta dai sun hada da launin fatar jiki da launin idanu da launin gashin kai da sauransu. A wasu lokuta akan yi amfani da kalmar “Inheritance” a maimakon “Heredity.”  Duk ma’anarsu daya ce a wannan fanni. Sai kalmar “Genetics,” wadda ke nufin “Ilimin Gadon Dabi’un Halitta.” Wannan shi ne sunan da wannan fanni ke tutiya da shi. Suna ne gamamme.  Sai kalma ta karshe mai suna “Genetic Engineering,” wato “Fannin Kwaskwarimar Dabi’ar Halitta” ta hanyar kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani. Wannan fanni ne mai hadari, kuma nan gaba bayanai za su zo kan muhawarar masana kimiyya da masana al’adu da masana tarihi da malaman addini, kan dacewa ko rashin dacewar wannan tsari na kwaskwarimar dabi’ar halittar dan Adam, musamman.

 

A mako mai zuwa za mu ci gaba.  A ci gaba da kasancewa tare da mu.

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