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Tsarin Ma’adanar Bayanai a kimiyyance (4)

Matashiya:

Amakonni uku da suka gabata muka fara gabatar da bayanai tiryan-tiryan kan tsarin ma’adanar bayanai, daga na dauri zuwa wadanda muke amfani da su a wannan zamani. A babin matashiya, mun gabatar da bayani kan hanyoyin da dan Adam ya biyo a baya wajen taskance bayanai a tsarin da ya samu kansa a ciki da irin ci gaban da ya samu daga baya – daga haddace abubuwa zuwa rubutu da karatu.  Mai karatu ya kara ji har wa yau, sa’ar da dan Adam ya fara dogaro da ci gaban kere-kere wajen adana bayanansa.

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Kashi na biyu ya leka dakin tarihi ne, inda na nakalto mana tarihi da asalin faifan tangaraho da faifan CD, wanda a Ingilishi ake kira: “Compact Disc.” A kashi na uku mai karatu ya ci karo ne da bayanai dalla-dalla kan kimiyya da fasahar da suke kunshe cikin faifan CD da fallayen da aka sarkafe wuri daya don inganta tsarin zubawa da sarrafa bayanai cikin sauki.

A halin yanzu za mu ci gaba, inda za mu tabo fasaha ta gaba, wato: Faifan DBD.

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FasaharFaifan DBD:

Haruffan “DBD” na ishara ne ga kalmar: “Digital Bersatile Disc.” Fasaha ce ta taskancewa da kuma sarrafa bayanai nau’uka daban-daban, ta hanyar hasken lantarki nau’in leza (Laser Light), wanda ke dauke cikin faifan gasasshiyar roba. Wannan suna na “DBD” shi ne sunan da kwamitin samar da wannan fasaha ya ba shi, a farkon lamari, ba tare da tantance hakikanin abin da haruffan ke nufi ba. Wannan ya jawo sabanin ma’anoni da lafuza a tsakanin kamfanonin da ke da alhakin kera wadannan faya-faye da ake son fitarwa a lokacin. Kamfanin Toshiba ya ce ma’anar lafuzan DBD a wajensa ita ce: “Digital Bideo Disc.” Abin da wannan ke nufi shi ne, idan aka yi la’akari da wannan ma’ana, kamfanin na nuna cewa an samar da wannan fasaha ce kawai don fa’idar taskancewa da kuma sarrafa bidiyo zalla.

Wannan ya sa sauran kamfanonin kera kwamfutoci a lokacin suka ce ba su yarda da wannan suna mai dauke da wannan ma’ana ba. Domin su ma suna da ruwa-da-tsaki wajen kerawa da yada wannan fasaha, tunda kwamfutocin da suke kerawa suna dauke da na’urar da ke sarrafa faifan DBD, kamar yadda suke dauke da na’urar sarrafa CD a baya.  Don haka, a cewarsu, dole ne a yi amfani da kalmar “Digital Bersatile Disc,” wato “Fasahar da ke iya taskancewa da sarrafa nau’ukan bayanai daban-daban na zamani, mai juriya da kwazo wajen adana su da kuma miko su, a duk sa’ar da aka bukace su.” Daga karshe dai, dole kamfanin Toshiba ya hakura, ya koma amfani da haruffan DBD mai ma’anar: “Digital Bersatile Disc.”

Abin da wannan ke nufi shi ne, faifan DBD ma’adana ce wacce ake iya zuba bayanai nau’in rubutu (Tedt) da sauti (Audio) da daskararren hoto (Still Image/Picture) da hoto mai motsi, wato bidiyo (Bideo) da taswira (Map) da bayanan bayanai (Meta data) da kuma manhajoji ko masarrafan kwamfuta (Applications/Programs). Bayan an taskance su a ciki, sannan ana iya amfani da na’urar DBD (DBD Player ko DBD-ROM da DBD-RW da ke kwamfuta), wajen sarrafa wadannan bayanai, cikin sauki. Bayan iya daukar kowane nau’in bayanai, faifan DBD na da mizani mai girma, fiye da mizanin faifan CD, wacce bayaninta ya gabata a baya.

To, laifin me kuma faifan CD ya yi da har aka yi masa kishiya a duniyar fasahar sadarwa na wancan zamani?

Asali da Samuwar Faifan DBD a Duniya:

Faifan DBD ya samo asali ne a 1995, bayan dusashewar hasken faifan CD, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a baya. Duk da cewa faifan CD da ma DBD da aka samar duk suna amfani ne da hasken lantarki nau’in leza wajen taskance bayanai da sarrafa su, idan aka jefa su cikin na’urar da ke iya fahimtar yarensu, sai dai ba su ba ne farkon fasahar da aka fara amfani da ita wajen aiwatar da wannan tsari na tu’ammali da bayanai.

Fasahar taskance bayanan bidiyo, musamman ta amfani da hasken lantarki (wanda ba nau’in leza ba) ta samo asali ne a 1958, inda wadansu bayin Allah masana harkar kere-kere da sadarwa irin na wancan zamani suka samar da wata fasaha mai iya taskance sakonnin bidiyo ta hanyar hasken lantarki. Wadannan mutane su ne: Mista Dabid Paul Gregg da abokinsa Mista James Russel. Hukumar Lura da Fasahar Kere-Kere ta Amurka ta ba su rajistar wannan fasaha ce (Patent) a 1961. Wanda wannan ne ya tabbatar musu da cikakken hakkin mallaka kan wannan fasaha.

Ana shiga shekarar 1978 kuma sai fasaha makamanciyar wancan, mai suna: “Laser Disc” ta bayyana a birnin Georgia ta Jihar Atlanta da ke kasar Amurkan har wa yau. Wannan fasaha dai faifai ce, irin wacce muka yi bayaninta kuma muke kan yi a yanzu, amma wannan tana da girma sosai. A takaice dai faifai ne. Sai dai fasahar ba ta shahara ba a dukan kasashen duniya, kamar yadda fasahar Faifan CD ta shahara. Wannan ya faru ne sanadiyyar dan karen tsadar da take da ita a wancan lokaci; ba kowa ke iya mallakar fasahar ba. Har wannan sabuwar fasaha ta gama zamaninta, kasashen Japan da Koriya ta Kudu da kasashen Turai da Hong Kong da Singafo da Malesiya da kuma Lardin Taiwan ne kadai suka yi tu’ammali da ita.

Zuwa 1987 sai kamfanin Philips da Sony suka samar da fasahar faifan CD, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata. Wannan ita ce fasahar farko da aka kirkira a duniya, wacce ke iya taskance bayanai, musamman na bidiyo, ta amfani da hasken lantarki nau’in leza. Da tafiya ta yi nisa, fasahar faifan CD ta fara ja baya saboda ci gaban zamani, wannan dalili na farko ke nan.  Dalili na biyu shi ne, fasahar faifan CD ba ta daukar bayanai masu yawa.  Duk bayanan ba su wuce mizani biliyan 750 ba. Wannan, ta la’akari da yanayin zamanin da ake ciki a lokacin, ba su taka kara ba balle su karya. Dalili na uku shi ne, fasahar faifan CD ba ta da tsawon rayuwa; ba ta da karko. Da zarar fuskar faifan ta samu matsala, na’urar ba ta iya karanto bayanan da ke cikin faifan.

Wadannan dalilai suka sa a 1993 Kamfanin Sony da Philips suka yi yunkurin samar da wata sabuwar fasaha, wacce a tunaninsu ta zarce fasahar faifan CD karko da karin mizani sama da 750MB.  Sun samar da wata fasaha mai suna: “Multimedia Compact Disc” (MMCD), wato fasahar faifan CD mai iya daukar kowane irin nau’in bayani da taskance shi. Wannan a bangaren Kamfanin Sony da Philips ke nan, wadanda dama tun farko su ne masu dabbaka fasahar ma’adanar bayanai da sadarwa a fannin bidiyo da sauti.

A dai wannan shekara har wa yau kuma sai ga wata fasahar sabuwa fil, mai suna: “Super Density” Disc, wato “SD” ke nan a takaice. Wadanda suka samar da wannan fasaha dai kamfanoni ne guda 7, kuma su ne kamar haka: Toshiba da Time Warner da Matsushita Electric da Hitachi da Mitsubishi Electric da Pioneer da Thomson da kuma JBC. Wadannan dai kamfanoni ne na kere-kere a fannin lantarki da sadarwa. Kuma ta la’akari da waccan sabuwar fasaha ta MMCD, akwai sabanin tsari da yanayin taskance bayanai.  Wannan na nufin idan an fara kera faifan wannan fasaha za a samu matsala ke nan.

Ana cikin haka sai hadakar kamfanonin kwamfuta guda biyar, a cikin watan Agusta na 1995, suka yi zuga don nuna rashin amincewarsu da wannan tsari na bambarakwai, wai namiji da sunan Rakiya.  Wadannan kamfanoni su ne: Kamfanin IBM da Kamfanin Apple da Kamfanin Compak da Kamfanin Hewlette-Packard, sai kuma kamfanin kwamfuta na Microsoft.  Wadannan kamfanoni sun ki amincewa ne da sabanin da ke tsakanin wadancan fasahohi guda biyu kuma suka ce dole ne a hade tsarin wadannan fasahohi biyu don samun tsari bai-daya. Wannan gungu na kamfanonin kwamfuta sun nada Shugaban Kamfanin IBM ne don jagorantar wannan kwamiti don tabbatar da samuwar biyan bukatarsu. Kuma cikin dacewar Allah, nan take aka samu amincewar kowane bangare; aka tabbatar da kundin fasahar DBD mai dauke da tsari daya da taskancewa da kuma sarrafa bayanai ta hanyar dukan na’urorin da za a kera don aiwatar da hakan.

Sanarwa:

Ina fadakar da masu karatu sauyin adireshin Imel don aiko sakonni gare ni. A baya shafin na amfani ne da adireshin: fasaha2013@gmail.com <mailto:fasaha2013@gmail.com>. A halin yanzu, sanadiyyar gidan yanar sadarwa da na bude, wanda ke dauke da dukan kasidun da ke bayyana a wannan shafi, na sauya sabon adireshin.  Masu karatu na iya tuntubata ta sabon adireshin wannan shafi kamar haka: wasiku@babansadik.com <mailto:wasiku@babansadik.com> Ina godiya matuka da sakonninku.  Allah sa mu dace, amin.