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Yadda ake zama Shugaban Amurka

Shugaban Amurka Donald Trump
Shugaban Amurka Donald Trump

’Yan takara 20 na Jam’iyyar Democrat a zaben Shugaban Kasa na shekarar 2020 ne suka tafka muhawara kwanaki kadan bayan Shugaba Trump ya kaddamar da tasa takarar a Jihar Florida.  A bayyana take cewa yakin zaben mai daukar lokaci ya dauki harama. Domin haka muka rairayo tsari da yadda za a iya zama shugaba mafi karfin iko a fadin duniya kamar yadda BBC ya kalato:

Wa ke da damar tsayawa takara?

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Shugaban Kasa wajibi ne ya kai shekara 35, haifaffen Amurka kuma mazaunin kasar na tsawon shekara akalla 14, kamar yadda kundin tsarin mulkin kasar ya tanada.

Akasarin ’yan takarar suna da masaniya kan harkokin siyasa ta hanyar rike mukamai kamar Sanata ko Gwamna ko Mataimakin Shugaban Kasa ko Dan Majalisar Wakilai.

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Sannan sukan fito daga bangaren sojoji kamar Janar mai ritaya Dwight Eisenhower, ko kuma ’yan kasuwa irin Donald Trump, wanda tsohon dillalin gidaje ne sannan tauraron shirin talabijin.

’Yan takarar baya-bayan nan suna da digiri na jami’a, kuma sama da rabin shugabannin sun yi digigrin ne a fannin lauya.

Amurkawa ba su taba zabar shuagaban da ba Kirista ba ko kuma mace, sannan Obama ne kawai shugaban da ba farar fata ba.

Donald Trump shi ne shugaba na 45 domin mutum 44 sun yi shugabancin kafin shi – sai dai tsohon Shugaba Grober Clebeland ya yi mulkin sau biyu a lokuta daban-daban.

Yaushe ake fara kamfe?

Ba kamar Najeriya da Birtaniya da Faransa ba inda ake kayyade lokacin da ’yan takara za su fara kamfe, ’yan takara a Amurka za su iya yin kamfe har na tsawon wata 18 saboda ba a kayyade lokacin farawa.

Shugaba Trump ya shirya kundin kamfe din sake zabensa a karo na biyu tun daga lokacin da ya karbi mukullan fadar White House a watan Janairun shekarar 2017.

Ya yi ta kamfe da taken “Make America Great Again” (A Dawo da Martabar Amurka), kuma ya ci gaba da yawon tarurrukan siyasa a fadin kasar tun daga wancan lokaci.

Zama Shugaban Kasa abu ne mai matukar tsada. Yana da matukar muhimmanci dan takara ya tattara gudunmawar kudi daga magoya bayansa sannan ya zuba nasa a harkokin kamfe.

Takara a tsakanin Hillary Clinton da Donald Trump a zaben 2016 ta lakume kudi Dala biliyan 2.4, kamar yadda shafin OpenSecrets.org mai kwarmata bayanai kan kudaden kamfe ya bayyana.

Tuni Donald Trump ya tara Dala miliyan 30 na kamfe din 2020 a watanni hudu na farkon bana, inda Bernie Sanders na Democrat yake biye masa, ya tara Dala miliyan 20.7.

Wadanne ne manyan jam’iyyu?

Manyan jam’iyyu biyu ne kawai masu zabe suka fi bai wa kuri’a – Democrat (mai sassaucin ra’ayi) da kuma Republican (mai tsattsauran ra’ayi).

Wani abin rikitarwa shi ne, masu sharhi kan yi wa Jam’iyyar Republican lakabi da GOP abin da ke nufin “Grand Old Party.”

Wasu jam’iyyun daban kan shiga zaben a wasu lokuta, inda jam’iyyun Libertarian da Green da kuma Independent kan gabatar da ’yan takararsu.

Wa ke son zama Shugaban Kasa a shekarar 2020?

’Yan takara fiye da 20 ne ke hankoron jam’iyyar Democrat ta tsayar da su takara.

Zaben cikin gida, wanda za a fara a watan Fabrairun badi, ana gudanar da shi a kowace jiha domin zabar ’yan takarar a matakin jam’iyya.

’Yan takarar Jam’iyyar Democrat da ke kan gaba su ne: Joe Biden tsohon Mataimakin Shugaba Barrack Obama da Elizabeth Warren Sanata daga Massachusetts da Bernie Sanders Sanata daga Bermont, da Kamala Harris, Sanata daga Jihar Kaliforniya.

Donald Trump bai zama cikakken dan takarar Republican ba tukunna har sai jam’iyyar ta gabatar da shi a hukumance.

Akalla mutum daya zai kalubalance shi – tsohon Gwamnan Massachusetts Bill Weld – sai dai da wuya ya iya yin wani tasiri saboda Trump yana da farin jini a jam’iyyar sosai.

Ta yaya ake samun nasarar cin zaben?

Wadanda jam’iyyun Democrat da Republican suka tsayar a matsayin ’yan takararsu su ne za su fafata a zaben Nuwamban 2020.

Kuri’un da kowane dan takara ya samu, wanda ake kira “The popular bote,” ba su da wani tasiri dangane da yadda za a samu nasarar lashe zaben.

Sai an duba tsarin kuri’a da ake kira “Electoral College.”

Wanda ya lashe kuri’a 270 cikin 538 – wato sama da rabi ke nan – na Electoral College shi ne zai shiga fadar White House.

Wannan ya sa wasu jihohi suka fi wasu muhimmanci.

Dan takara ka iya fin abokin takararsa yawan kuri’u amma kuma ya kasa yin nasarar lashe zaben, kamar yadda ya faru ga Al Gore na Democrat a 2000 da kuma Hillary Clinton a 2016.

Kowace jiha tana da wani adadi na masu jefa kuri’a, wanda ake ayyana su bisa girman wakilcin da jihar take da shi a Majalisar Wakilai.

Jihohi shida mafiya girma su ne: Kalifoniya mai kuri’a 55, Tekzas mai 38, New York mai 29, Florida mai 29, Illinois mai 20, sai Pennsylbania mai kuri’a 20.

Yayin da jihohin Kalifoniya da New York da Illinois ke karkashin ikon Democrat, Tekzas tana karkashin Republican ne, ana fafata zaben Shugaban Kasar ne a jihohi ’yan tsirari kamar Ohio da Florida, wadanda a iya cewa ba su da alkibla a siyasance.

Jihohin da ba su da alkibla a siyasance kan iya canjawa kuma hakan ya dogara ne ga dan takara.

Jihohin Arizona da Pennsylbania da Wisconsin duka ana iya kallonsu a matsayin marasa alkibla, wadanda a kowane lokaci suke iya canjawa.

’Yan takara ba su fiye bata lokaci ba a jihohin da suke ganin ba za su samu kuri’a da yawa ba.

Ana yi wa jihohin da Jam’iyyar Democrat take da karfi lakabi da “Red States” – masu hadari ga Republican – inda kuma ake yi wadanda Republican take da karfi lakabi da “Blue States” – masu takaici ga Democrat.

Kowace jiha tana kirga kuri’unta ne kuma akasari akan sanar da wanda ya yi nasara a daren ranar da aka kada kuri’un.

Bayan an mika mulki, wanda ya lashe Shugabancin Kasar zai fara aiki a watan Janairu bayan bikin rantsuwa.  Bayan kammala biki a harabar Majalisar Wakilai, Shugaban Kasar zai fita cikin jerin gwano zuwa Fadar White House, inda zai fara wa’adin mulki na tsawon shekara hudu.