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Bikin murnar cika shekara 50 da fara zuwa duniyar wata (8)

Wannan shi ne kashi na biyu kan abin da ya shafi nau’o’in tauraron dan Adam wato, Satellite ke nan.  Wadannan bayanai dai waiwaye ne suke yi mana kan wannan ilimi mai muhimmanci, cikin bikin murnar cika shekara 50 da fara zuwa duniyar wata. A sha karatu lafiya:

Nau’o’in Tauraron Dan Adam

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Akwai nau’o’in tauraron dan Adam da dama a cikin falaki, masu shawagi don gudanar da ayyukan da aka aike su gudanarwa. A halin yanzu ga bayanan nan filla-filla kan dukkan nau’o’in da ake da su:

Taurarin Sadarwa (Communications Satellites)

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Wadannan su ne nau’in taurarin da ke taimakawa wajen zukowa da kuma yada bayanai don sadarwa a duniya gaba daya.  An fara harba irin wadannan taurari ne tun 1962, lokacin da Hukumar Binciken Sararin Samaniya (NASA) ta kasar Amurka ta harba tauraron Telstar 1, na Kamfanin AT&T.  Wannan tauraro ne na musamman mai taimakawa wajen harba sigina da yanayin sadarwar tarho da shirye-shiryen talabijin na Kamfanin AT&T. Cikin 1964 kuma Hukumar Tsaron Kasar Amurka (US Department of Defense), ta cilla wani tauraron dan Adam mai tabbata a bigire guda cikin falakinsa, wato geostationary orbit. Wannan tauraro, mai suna Syncom 3, shi ne na farko da aka taba harbawa mai amfani da wannan tsari. A wuri guda yake, daidai saitin duniya a can sararin samaniya, yana aiko da sakonnin da yake taskancewa lokaci-lokaci. A halin yanzu akwai taurari sama da 300 masu amfani da wannan tsari, suna aikowa da sakonnin sauti da kuma rubutattun sakonni na shirye-shiryen tashoshin rediyo da talabijin da sakonnin tarho daga muhallin da suke gudana a ciki. Dukkan shirye-shiryen da muke gani daga tashoshin tauraron dan Adam irin su Al-Jazeerah da BBC da CNN da NTA da sauran tashoshin da muke kallo, duk suna amfani ne da irin wannan nau’i na tauraron dan Adam mai tabbata a muhalli guda, wato geostationary orbit.

Taurarin Gano Bigire da Hangen Nesa (Nabigation Satellites)

Wadannan su ne nau’o’in tauraron dan Adam masu taimakawa wajen gano inda wasu abubuwa (irin su jiragen ruwa da na sama da motoci) ko halittu (kamar mutane da sauran dabbobi) suke a duniya ko sararin samaniya. Su ake kira Nabigation Satellites a Turance, kuma kamar sauran wadanda suka gabace su, suna amfani ne da siginar yanayi wajen aikawa da sakonni zuwa cibiyar da ke lura da su a doron kasa, ko duk wani wanda ke dauke da na’urar da ke karbar sakonni daga gare su. Da su ake amfani wajen gano inda wani jirgin sama yake, musamman idan ya bace an rasa inda ya shiga; da su ake amfani wajen gano inda wani jirgin ruwa yake a cikin teku. Har wa yau da wannan nau’in tauraron dan Adam ne ake sanin bigiren da wadannan abubuwa suke. Wadannan taurari na amfani ne da siginar rediyo (radio signals) wajen tunkudo sakonnin da yake taskancewa a halin aikinsa, zuwa wata na’ura da ke nan duniya, mai iya fahimta da kuma fassara wannan sako da suka aiko zuwa rubutattun sakonni da za a iya karantawa.

Wadannan fassararrun sakonni sun shafi haruffa da lambobin da ke nuna iya jiha ko bigiren da wadannan taurari suka hango.  Misali, idan kana dauke da mota mai dauke da na’urar gano abubuwa (nabigation receiber) da zarar ta karbi sakonni daga wadannan taurari, sai ta fassara maka su nan take; a ciki za ka ga bigiren da kake, a kowace kasa kake kuwa a duniya.  Ka kwatanta aikin wannan na’ura da aikin da na’urar karbar siginar tashoshin talabijin tauraron dan Adam da ke dakinka ke yi; kasuwa ka je ka sayo na’urar, tare da kwandon tauraron dan Adam (Satellite Dish) mai taimakawa wajen janyo siginar da taurarin sadarwa ke aikowa duniya. Da zarar ka kunna talabijin dinka, sai wannan na’ura da a Turance muke kira Satellite Receiber ko Decoder, ta karbi siginar, ta sarrafa su zuwa hotuna masu motsi da ke bayyana a fuskar talabijin dinka. Haka wadannan na’urorin gano bigire ke yi su ma.  Da zarar sun karbi sakonnin sigina daga wadannan taurari, sai su sarrafa su zuwa bayanai da ke nuna inda mai dauke da su yake, ko bigiren da wani abu ko halitta take.

Tauraron gano bigire da hangen nesa na farko da ya fara zuwa falaki shi ne Transit 1B, wanda Hukumar Sojan Ruwa na kasar Amurka ta harba a 1960.  Gwamnatin Amurka ta ci gaba da amfani da shi har zuwa 1996, inda ta canja shi da wani tsari mai suna Global Positioning System (GPS).  Tsarin GPS shi ne tsarin gano bigire da hangen nesa mai amfani da taurarin dan Adam guda 24, masu aiko sakonnin hangen da suke yi, tare da bayar da bayanai kan bigiren da wani abu yake, a lissafce. Wannan tsari shi ne na farko wajen inganci a duniya wajen kiyasta bigire da hango mahallin da wani abu yake a duniya ne ko a sararin samaniya.  Sai tsarin Global Orbiting and Nabigation Satellite System (GLONASS), wanda kasar Rasha ta kera.  Shi ma, kamar tsarin GPS da ya gabace shi, yana amfani ne da taurarin dan Adam guda 24 masu shawagi cikin falaki don tunkudo masa bayanai.

A cikin shekarar 2005, Tarayyar Kasashen Turai, wato European Union, ta cilla gungun wasu taurarin gano bigire guda 30 da ta kira da suna Galileo, a wani yunkuri da take yi don kera tsari makamancin GPS da GLONASS. Wannan tsari na gano bigire da hangen nesa zai fara aiki ne cikin shekarar 2009 in Allah Ya kai mu. Kuma za a rika kiran tsarin da suna Global Nabigation Satellite System (GNSS). A halin yanzu akwai na’urar karban bayanai daga ire-iren wadannan taurari da dama da aka kera kuma ake makala ta jikin motoci da ababen hawa. Kai hatta wayoyin salula na zamani akwai masu dauke da wannan na’ura; wacce ake kira GPS Receiber.