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Tasirin ci gaban kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa ga zamantakewar dan Adam a duniya (6)

Tsarin CRISPR

A shekarar 2012, sai wadansu malaman kimiyyar halitta suka binciko wata hanya mafi sauki da araha, idan aka kwatanta da ta baya, wajen sauya wadannan bayanai don samar wa jinsin dan Adam rayuwa mai sauki ta hanyar rabuwa da cututtukan da aka kasa gane kansu balle magance su. Wannan sabuwar hanya ita ce: CRISPR (ko a ce: “Kirispa” a lafazance), jerin haruffa ne da ke wakiltar wasu kalmomi masu siffata wani/wata hanyar gudanar da wani aiki. Abin da wadannan haruffa ke wakilta kuwa shi ne: “Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats.”

Masanan da suka gano wannan sabuwar hanyar sauya bayanan kwayar halittar jikin dan Adam sun lura ne da cewa, a cikin jikin dan Adam akwai wasu kananan halittu wadanda ke bai wa dan Adam kariya daga cututtuka. Wadannan su ake kira Antibodies, kamar yadda muka sani a harshen Ingilishi.  Iya aikinsu shi ne, yawo a cikin jini don yin fada da duk wani bakon abu da zai iya kawo wa jikin dan Adam cikas. To amma sun lura cewa da zarar cututtuka sun yi yawa a cikin jinin dan Adam, nan take sai ya kamu da rashin lafiya, domin wadannan kananan kwayoyin halitta suna gazawa. Da suka koma cikin wancan rumbun adana bayanan dabi’a da siffofin dan Adam, sai suka gano cewa ana iya amfani da wata hanya mafi sauki wajen zakulo harafin da ke wakiltar bayanin da ke bai wa cuta damar kama jikin dan Adam har ta kasa jin magani, kuma a iya cire shi. Ba wannan ba ne kadai, da zarar an yanke ko cire wannan bayani mai dauke da cuta, wani bayani lafiyayye zai maye gurbinsa nan take, sanadiyyar wani tsari da Allah Madaukakin Sarki Ya samar a jikin dan Adam. Wannan zai bayar da damar cire duk wani sinadarin halitta da ke cikin jikin dan Adam wanda ke bai wa wata cuta damar likewa a jikinsa har ta kasa jin magani. Domin ko an cire wannan sinadari ma, ta amfani da wannan tsari na CRISPR, wani sinadari makamancinsa lafiyayye zai sake tsirowa don maye gurbinsa. Allah Buwayi Gagara Misali.

Tasirin CRISPR a aikace

Kafin gano wannan tsari na CRISPR da ke sauwake yadda ake iya sauya bayanan dabi’un halittar dan Adam, wanda aka gano ta hanyar yin gwaji ga kananan halittu irin su beraye da sauransu, dama masana sun dade suna tantance nau’o’in cututtukan da suka addabi jinsin dan Adam, wadanda ko dai aka kasa gano hanyoyin magance su gaba daya, irin su kanjamau (AIDS) a farkon lamari, ko kuma tun magungunan na iya magance su har cututtukan suka gagari nau’o’in maganin da ake iya magance su da su.

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Daga cikin ire-iren wadannan cututtuka akwai cutar kanjamau (AIDS ko HIB) da cutar sankara (Cancer) da cutar farfadiya da kuma wata cuta da ke kasa sandarar da jinin dan Adam idan ya samu rauni. Wannan cuta ita ake kira Haemophilia. Masu irin wannan cuta da zarar sun samu rauni, to, jini ya rika kwarara ke nan babu kakkautawa. A ka’ida duk sa’ar da jini ya fara zuba daga jikin mutum, nan take zai kame. Wannan shi ake kira Blood Clotting a Ingilishi. Amma masu wannan cuta ta Haemophilia ba su da wannan tsari a garkuwar jikinsu. Wadannan na cikin manyan cututtukan da ake ta kokarin magance su gaba daya ma daga jinsin dan Adam.

A yanzu kokarin da ake ta yi shi ne yin amfani da wannan hanya ta CRISPR don zare sinadaran da ke dauke da wadancan cututtuka ga duk wanda aka same shi da su. Misali, mai cutar sikila, ana iya duba sinadaran da mara lafiyar ke dauke da su masu kunshe da cutar, sai a cire su, a dasa wasu lafiyayyu a madadinsu. Haka mai wancan cuta na Haemophilia ma, ana iya gano asalin cutar da cikin bayanan dabi’ar halittar mara lafiya, a cire ta gaba daya. Cututtuka irin su sankara da kanjamau (HIB) kuwa tuni ana ta aiki a kansu. Manufar, a asali don samar da waraka ce. Wannan ta bangaren cututtuka ke nan da neman waraka.

A daya bangaren kuma tsarin CRISPR ya samar da wata hanya mafi sauki wajen samar da wasu nau’o’in jarirai na musamman masu da dauke da dabi’u na musamman.  Wadannan nau’o’in jarirai su ake kira, Designer Babies; wato yadda za ka je kamfanin kera motoci ka gaya musu irin motar da kake bukata a maka da irin siffofin da kake bukata da wannan sabon tsari na CRISPR ana ganin nan gaba ma haka abin zai kasance wajen haihuwa.

Kafin samuwar CRISPR, tuni an samar da na’urorin kimiyya na musamman da ake amfani da su wajen haifar da jarirai ga wadanda ba su da su, ko ga matan da ba su iya haihuwa sanadiyyar dalilan rashin lafiya misali. Amma a halin yanzu an wuce wurin. Ana magana ce a kan yadda za a yi a iya sarrafa sinadaran halittar jariri tun yana mahaifar uwarsa, tun daga tsarin tunaninsa a kwakwalwa da halayyarsa da dabi’unsa, zuwa irin wanda mahaifansa ke so.  Ya zama da zarar an haife shi, zai zo ne da wadannan siffofi kai-tsaye.

A mako mai zuwa in Allah Ya so, za mu ga wasu daga cikin tasirin da wannan sabon tsarin bincike da jirkita asalin bayanan dabi’un halitta ga rayuwar bil-Adama a yanzu.

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