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Bikin murnar cika shekara 50 da fara zuwa duniyar wata (9)

Ga kashi uku, wanda ci gaba ne cikin bayanin da muka koro a makon jiya kan nau’o’in tauraron dan Adam.  Asalin makalar mun gabatar da ita ce tsakanin shekarar 2011 da 2012. A sha karatu lafiya:

Taurarin gano Yanayin Muhalli (Weather Satellites)

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Wadannan su ne nau’o’in tauraron dan Adam masu dauko hotunan sararin samaniya da irin kai-komon da gira-gizai ke yi, wanda hakan ke nuna daidaito ko tsanantar yanayi sanadiyyar ambaliya ko iska da guguwa mai tsanani. Tauraron dan Adam mai wannan aiki yana dauke ne da na’urar daukar hoto, wato kyamara, wacce ke fuskantar sararin samaniyar wannan duniya a kullum.  Yana kuma dauke da na’urar sansano yanayi wajen dumama ko tsanantar sanyi da ruwan sama. Da zarar ya tara bayanai, sai ya tunkudo su zuwa cibiyar da ke lura da shi a nan duniya. Da ire-iren wadannan bayanai ne ake amfani wajen yin hasashen yanayi a kullum (Weather Reports). Ba dole ba ne sai abin da bayanan suka tabbatar yake tabbata, a’a, kamar sauran ilimi, kiyasi kawai suke bayarwa. A iya dacewa, a wasu lokuta kuma Allah Ya yi naSa ikon, wanda ke shi yake tabbata a kullum. Ba daskararrun hotuna kadai suke dauka ba, har da hotuna masu motsi, wadanda suke nuna halin da tekunan duniya suke ciki wajen ambaliya ko natsuwa.

Tauraron dan Adam na farko da aka fara cillawa zuwa cikin falaki don gudanar da wannan aiki shi ne Telebision Infrared Obserbation Satellite, (TIROS 1) a gajarce.  Hukumar NASA ce ta harba shi a 1960, kuma ya hankado mata hotunan yanayin sararin samaniya sama da dubu 23.  Har wa yau, ta sake harba wasu gungun taurarin dan Adam a wani shiri mai take: Geostationary Operational Enbironmental Satellite (GOES), wadanda gungun taurari ne masu tabbata a muhalli guda cikin falaki don nazarin muhalli da yanayin tekuna da hazo. Da wannan tsari take samun bayanai kan yanayi a duk shekara, ta hadin gwiwa da wani tauraron lura da yanayi mai suna Meteosat 3, wanda Kungiyar Tarayyar Turai ta harba.

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Taurari kan Harkar Soji (Military Satellites)

Su kuma taurari kan harkar soji aikinsu shi ne tunkudo bayanai da hotuna masu inganci kan irin halin da duniya ke ciki na zaman lafiya ko rashinsa. Ma’ana, duk kasar da ta cilla tauraron dan Adam don amfanin hukumar sojinta, ta yi kandagarki ne don samun bayanai kan kowane irin hari da wata kasa ko al’umma za su iya kawo mata. Don haka tauraron dan Adam mai wannan aiki yana dauke da na’urorin daukar hoto ne masu inganci, masu kuma dauko hotunan teku da dukkan sassan duniya don sanin halin da ake ciki. Hukumar Sojin Amurka na da gungun taurarin dan Adam masu wannan aiki da dama a cikin falaki, masu mika sakonnin hukumar tsaron kasar da duk inda kasar take da sansani na soji a duniya. Akwai Defense Support Programme, wanda ke aiki da wasu taurarin dan Adam a cikin falaki wajen gano duk wani makami da wata kasa ka iya jefo wa kasar Amurka. Kasar Amurka ta yi amfani da wadannan taurari don lura da gwamnatin marigayi Saddam Hussein a lokacin Yakin Tekun Fasha (Gulf), don kauce wa rafkana daga makaman da take tunanin ya mallaka.  Har wa yau, Amurka na amfani da wadannan taurari masu kawo rahoton hari, don yada bayanai kan bigire da gano inda wasu abubuwa suke, a tsarin Global Positioning System (GPS). Sai dai kuma sakonnin da wadannan taurari ke aikowa duniya, ba kowace na’urar sarrafa bayanai ke iya amfani da su ba sai na hukumar tsaro.

Taurarin Binciken Kimiyya (Scientific Satellites)

Nau’in tauraron dan Adam na karshe shi ne wanda masana masu bincike kan ilimin kimiyya a jami’o’i ke amfani da shi don samun bayanai kan yadda duniya take da sauran duniyoyin da ke makwabtaka da wannan duniya tamu. Ire-iren wadannan taurarin mafi girman aikinsu shi ne daukar hotunan duniya da sassanta da daukar hotunan tekun da ke zagaye da mu da daukar taswirar da duniya take kai. Bayan haka, sabanin sauran taurarin da suka gabata masu yin shawagi a cikin falakin wannan duniya tamu kadai, taurarin binciken kimiyya na yin shawagi hatta cikin falakin wata da rana da taurari da kuma sauran duniya makamantar namu. Cikin 1990 aka harba na’urar hangen nesa mai suna The Hubble Space Telescope, mai shawagi don dauko hotuna na musamman don binciken kimiyya. Bayan wannan duniya da muke ciki, duniyar da wadannan taurari suka fi kai ziyara cikinta ita ce duniyar Mirrik, wato Mars. Wadannan a takaice, su ne nau’o’in tauraron dan Adam da ake da su a yanzu.